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Environmental Sciences » Past Abstracts
Volume 1

1. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 1-5 (2010)

WATER STRESS INDUCED CHANGES IN PROLINE CONTENT IN VIGNA UNGUICULATA (LINN.) VAR. KONKAN SADABAHAR AT VARIOUS STAGES OF GROWTH

Patil, A.G., Patil, D.A., Phatak, A.V. and Naresh Chandra

Department of Botany, Birla College, Kalyan-421 304, E. mail: dravinashpatil@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Water stress is one of the major constraints in plant growth resulting loss in crop production. Various plant parts can sustain the water stress to different degree. It was demonstrated that bayleton (Triadimefon) reduces transpiration and increases yield in water stress plant. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the responses caused by progressive water stress and bayleton treatment on the proline content of Vigna unguiculata (Linn.) var. Konkan Sadabahar at two stages of growth, viz. germination and young plant stage. The proline content in root, stem and leaf of 17 days old plants subjected to water stress with bayleton treatment [bayleton soaked seeds + bayleton spray (0.1 ppm)] was found to be less in comparison with plants subjected to water stress.

Key words: Vigna unguiculata (Linn.), Water stress, Proline


2. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 7-13 (2010)

BIOLOGICAL MATURITY AND CHEMICAL STABILITY OF MICROBIAL INFLUENCED TAPIOCA SOLID WASTE VERMICOMPOST

Malathi, R. and Anitha Subash

Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam University
For Women, Coimbatore 641 043, Tamil Nadu. E. mail: tmvrmal@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Tapioca solid waste (TSW), a major biodegradable solid waste having high amounts of organic matter, act as a better source and cow dung (CD) used as bulking material in the proportion of 3:1 for polyculture earthworm composting. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability (vermicompost aging) by analyzing the humic acid level, microbial biomass, earthworm biomass, cocoon formation and worm mortality rate in microbial (Trichoderma viridae and Bacillus polymyxa) aided TSW vermicomposting,  because these parameters can control the quality of the resulting vermicompost. Analysis of the composts in control, microbes, earthworms and earthworms with microbes treated media were done on the 25th, 50th and 75th days. Significant changes were observed in all media except control. Significant changes, such as:  1. increased humic acid content, 2. increased microbial biomass (CO2) up to 50th day then decline on the 75th day, 3. decreased earthworm biomass, 4. increased earthworm biomass and 5. cocoon formation, were recorded. The yield of the final compost was high in earthworms with microbes treated medium. Thus, our results reveal that the use of selected microorganisms with polyculture earthworms enhances the composting process and chemical stability of Tapioca solid waste vermicomposting.

Key words: Vermicomposting, Tapioca solid waste, Microorganisms


3. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 15- 21 (2010)

IMPACTS OF INDUSTRIAL  POLLUTION ON THE STATUS OF LENTIC ECOSYSTEM

Vachhrajani, K. D. and Verma, S.

Division of Environment and Toxicology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002, Gujarat,  E-mail: kauresh@gmail.com

Abstract: The research carried out during past several decades has identified potential hazardous chemicals, and their concentrations which are permissible for release of pollutants into the environment. However, industrial waste is being poured into the ponds and lakes, streams, rivers, estuaries and oceans leading to constant threat to healthy environment. In present studies, the lentic system influenced by the industrial pollution (Koyali pond) was compared with that of a non influenced site (Dumadpond). Routine physicochemical and pollutant specific analysis were carried out in fresh water surface and ground water samples from the sites located in the vicinity of industrial area for comparison with the site located away from the industrial area. During pre monsoon several parameters of water analysis were altered in the polluted site. The presence of metals like iron, lead, cadmium and copper in Koyali pond water and in groundwater samples from the industrial area alarmingly indicated degradation of freshwater systems. The qualitative parameters at Koyali, in most cases, showed positive correlation and significant variations, therefore, it can be suggested that the variations in parameter values at Koyali compared to that noted at Dumad are due to pollutant inputs from the surrounding industries. 

Key words: Industrial pollution, Physicochemical parameters, Metals


4. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 23 - 26 (2010)

DIVERSITY OF FISHES FROM FRESH WATER RESERVOIR NYARI  II OF RAJKOT DISTRICT, GUJARAT

Goswami, A.P.  and Mankodi, P.C.

Division of Fishery and Aquatic Biology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara - 390 002. E. mail: pcmankodi@yahoo.com

Abstract: Nyari II reservoir is located in Rajkot district of Gujarat State near Rangpar village at Latitude: 22o 21’45" N and Longitude: 70o 40’15" E. The main purpose of construction of this reservoir was to provide water for irrigation in surrounding agricultural fields and drinking water supply to Rajkot Urban Development Area. However, as it has good water storage capacity, the reservoir is also used for stocking of cultivable fishes. Several native fishes also thrive in this reservoir along with stocked composite carp.  The diversity of fish may be grouped in two categories like stocked Indian Major Carps and other native fishes. The fishes represent families like Cyprinidae, Channidae, Cichlidae, Siluridae, Percidae, Gobiidae, etc. The detailed taxonomic account of these fishes is documented in this paper.

Key words: Fresh water reservoir, Fish diversity, Rajkot


5. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 27 - 32 (2010)

ON THE PESTICIDE USE PATTERNS IN THE CULTIVATED SOILS OF  RAJKOT DISTRIC OF GUJARAT  AND THEIR  IMPLICATIONS: A GENERAL SERVEY

Sumit Kumar
Biotechnology Department, V.V.P. Engineering College, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 006 E-mail: btsumit@gmail.com

Abstract: In this study, 90 randomly selected farmers from three different Talukas (administrative blocks) were surveyed regarding pesticide use patterns in Rajkot district of Gujarat. The survey was conducted during December to February  (for three years). The results indicate pesticides are readily available and widely used in crop cultivation. The most widely used pesticides were mancozeb, imidacloprid, copper-oxychloride, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, monocrotophos and quinolphos. The crop in which highest number of pesticide formulations consumed was cotton followed by vegetables, groundnut and gingelly. Overall study shows that the pesticides were badly chosen and farmers did not wear suitable personal protection while spraying pesticides. Excessive use and inappropriate handling of pesticides cause damages of environmental resources and different health related problems. Therefore, pesticide use patterns among farmers in Rajkot need improvement. The present study can help to develop strategies for avoiding negative impact of pesticide misuse and promoting sustainable development.

Key words: Pesticide, Environmental hazards, Health hazards


6. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 33 - 38 (2010)

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CULTIVATED SOILS AND THEIR EFFECT ON NATIVE ENDOSULFAN TOLERANT BACTERIA

Sumit Kumar

Biotechnology Department, V.V.P. Engineering College, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 006
E-mail: btsumit@gmail.com

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of soil physicochemical properties viz. bulk density, porosity, soil moisture, soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, organic nitrogen and available phosphorus, on the population of native endosulfan-tolerant bacteria in the cultivated soils of Rajkot district of Gujarat. The soil physical properties like bulk density and electrical conductivity did not affect significantly to native endosulfan-tolerant bacterial density, while the effect of porosity and soil moisture was found to be quite significant. Similarly, the soil chemical properties like pH had little effect on the abundance of endosulfan-tolerant bacteria in the soil. However, the impact of soil organic carbon, organic nitrogen and available phosphorus was very significant. The results of the present study can be utilized for the development of effective bioremediation process for pesticide-contaminated soil.

Key words: Physicochemical, Bulk density, Bacterial density, Endosulfan


7. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 39 - 43 (2010)

MORPHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIOURAL CHANGES IN EARTHWORMS DURING MALATHION INTOXICATION AND EFFECT ON SOIL FERTILITY

Bansiwal, K., Rai, N., Kurawar, R. and Rathor, D.S.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Mohan Lal Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313 001.
E. mail: vinitabansi@yahoo.com

Abstract: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of toxic stress of malathion on the morphological and behavioural changes in earthworms, Eisenia foetida as well as to analyse    the soil fertility.  Soil beds were prepared in plastic tubs containing about 1 kg dry filtered soil + 250 grams dry powdered cow dunk, mixed thoroughly with water. Total 6 such beds were used for each experiment. Five doses of malathion, (0.010 %, 0.025%, 0.050%, .0750% and 0.1%) mixed separately in first 5 tubs and the 6th tub was kept for control. 20 mature healthy earthworms of approximately same size and weight were kept in each tub. All containers were cover with wet muslin cloths. Such experiments were set for 10, 20 and 30 days. The soil properties (pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and chloride) were analysed before and after each experiment.  The results show several morphological and behavioural changes in earthworm and remarkable changes in  physico-chemical parameters of soil.

Key words: Earthworms, Malathion, Morphological changes, Soil fertility.


8. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 45 - 48 (2010)

EFFECT OF BUTACHLOR EC-50 ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS

Sivakumar, K.,  Kishore, S.G. and Muralidharan, D.

Department of Biotechnology, Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering and Technology Chinna Kolambakkam, Madhranthagam, Tk, Kancheepuram, Dt  603 308.
E. mail: ksivakumar76@gmail.com

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to analyse haematological parameters of Oreochromis mossambicus exposure with butachlor EC-50. The animals were exposed to different concentrations of butachlor EC-50 (0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3ppm) for 24 and 48 hrs. At the end of the experiments mortality percentage for finding LC50 value was found to be 0.02 and 0.017ppm on 24 and 48 h, respectively. The data obtained from the percentage of mortality showed statistically significant difference (P<0.05 level) between the concentration of Butachlor EC-50. The haematological parameters such as TLC, TEC, Hb, PCV, platelets, MCV, MCH and MCHC were analysed on 10th and 20th day exposure of butachlor EC-50 and control fish. Results of the parameters of treated fish showed significant difference when compared to control.

Key words: Oreochromis mossambicus, Butachlor EC-50, Haematological parameters


9. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 49 - 54 (2010)

NESTING PATTERN OF THE TERMITES ODONTOTERMES BRUNNEUS AND ODONTOTERMES WALLONENSIS (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE)

Farzana, J., Sangamma, I., Rajashekhar, M.,  Vijaykumar, K., Burli, P. and Chimkod, V.N.

Department of Zoology, Smt. V. G. Womens College for Arts, Science, Commerce and Home Science, Gulbarga-585 102. E. mail: m_rajshekhar@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The colony foundation, development, pattern of young and established nests of termites, Odontotermes brunneus and O. wallonensis were investigated.  Swarming of alates of both the species occurred during pre-monsoon (June/July) and continued throughout the wet months.  After pairing, alates of both the species selected sites in crevices of the soil or in loose soil for the foundation of a colony.  The active construction of the mound was observed during the cool hours of the day in rainy months. The young nests of O. brunneus was conical-shaped with one or more conical turrets, whereas it was dome-shaped with one or two domes like turrets in O. wallonensis.  In young colonies, the fungus combs were aggregated in the central cavity and the royal chamber was situated beneath usually at the centre.  The established nests of both the species were extended by addition of vaults, galleries, runways etc.  The mound nest was extended in vertical direction in O. brunneus whereas it was extended horizontally in O. wallonensis.

Key words: Odontotermes brunneus, Odontotermes wallonensis,  Nesting


10. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 55 - 60 (2010)

DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF MOLLUSCANS IN BHUTNAL RESERVOIR,   BIJAPUR DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA

Karekal, S.M., Rajshekhar, M. and Vijay Kumar, K.

Department of Zoology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106; 1Department of Zoology, S. B Arts and Science College, Bijapur 586 101 Karnataka. E. mail: m_rajshekhar@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The present study deals with the comparative account of water quality, diversity and population density of molluscans in two water bodies of Gulbarga and Bidar districts. This study was undertaken for a period of two years from 0ctober 2001 to September. 2003. Eleven species of molluscan identified for both reservoir of which eight are gastropods and three belongs to bivalves. Among the gastropds, Lymnaea luteola, Lymnaea acuminate, Melania (Palitia scabra), Melania scabra var elegans species and among bivalves Parreysia corrugate var nagvorensis, Lamellidens corrianus species were dominant in Bhutnal reservoir. While, in Almatti reservoirs, Melania scabra var elegans, Diogoniostoma pulchella, Lymnaea luteola, Lymnaea acuminate species, Bivalves Parreysia corrugate, Lamellidens corrianus were dominant species. All the physico chemical parameters are with in the permissible limit. Statistical analysis for Correlation and Shannon Weiner diversity index is also discussed in the paper.

Key words: Bhutnal Reservoir, Molluscans


11. Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol. 3: 61-63 (2010)

 

LABORATORY REARING OF PHLEBOTOMUS PAPATASI SCOPOLI (DIPTERA : PSYCHODIDAE) AND PROBLEMS IN IRAN

Shirani-Bidabadi, L., Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M.R., Hanafi-Bojd, A.A., Akhavan, A.A., Oshaghi, M.A., Zeraati, H. and Shariat,  S.

Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.  E. mail: L_shirani @mui.ac.ir.

Abstract: There are many difficulties of growing Sand files in laboratory in 7 generations. One of the important difficulties in rearing is fungal contamination. In current study the nature and circumstances of fungal contamination of the laboratory rearing of Phlebotomus papatasi is reported. Fungal growth is favoured during winter and diapause The harmful effects vary with the fungal species and the larval stages. Study shows that the use of aseptic techniques and the avoidance of over feeding can solve the problem. A number of fungi species viz., Mucor , Cladosporium and Aspergillus species, mites of order Mesostigmata, super cohort (Monogynaspida) were detected. At different stages of development death of larvae due to the infaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella species were seen.

Key words: Phlebotomus Papatasi rearing


 
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