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Tissue Research » Current Abstracts
 1. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research  18(3): 6491-6504 (2018)
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Rescue of beta cells from immune destruction in type 1 diabetes: Advancements in treatment
strategy: A review
 
 Kavya, J., Raval, M., Gondaliya, P. and Kalia, K.
 
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research-Ahmedabad, opposite Air Force Station,
Palaj, Gandhinagar-382355 (Gujarat). E. mail: director@niperahm.ac.in, Cell: 79 66745555
 
Abstract: Breakthrough of insulin as a life-saving approach in treating patients suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) came into existence around 9 decades back and since then remarkable improvement was observed in diabetes. Nevertheless, none of the approaches for delivering insulin complies with the natural maintenance as efficiently as does the human pancreas. Indigenous human pancreas self-regulates its balance between insulin secretion and maintenance of normal glucose level. Transplantation approach for total pancreas or human beta cells provide primary attention for the cure and hence a promising method for treatment of type 1 diabetes, but these approaches had limitations related to immunosuppression. Current development in the regeneration of cells and differentiation of pancreatic beta cell allows personalized stem cell generation, providing an infinite source of functional beta cells for cellular therapies. This review has its main focus on the utility of transplanted beta cells and the related advancements for protecting transplanted beta cells against immune destruction. There are various immune intervention approaches which are gaining importance in the treatment of T1DM; for example, cellular therapies, nonspecific immunosuppression, immune modulation of a specific pathway, antigen-specific therapies and many more.
 
Key words: Type 1 diabetes, Beta cell
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2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6505-6512 (2018)
 
In-vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells into mature
 red blood cells
 
 El-Hawary, E.E., Laag, E.M., Zidan, A.A., Abdou, S.M., El-Chennawi, F.A. and El-Shanshory, M.R.
 
Faculty of  Medicine, El Bahr St., Medical campus, Pediatrics department, Tanta Qism 2, Tanta, Gharbia Governorate, postal code 31527, Egypt. E. mail: eslamelhawary@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: The remaining blood in the umbilical cord is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells that can be used for in vitro generation of RBCs. This could be a promising new solution to the shortage of safe blood for transfusion. The aim of this work was to differentiate, in vitro, the umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells (CD34+ cells) into red blood cells. CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were separated from cord blood, then seeded in a special cytokine-supplemented medium, incubated at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 % CO2. Cell morphology and changes of CD markers were analyzed on days 7, 14, and 21. We were able to differentiate CD34+ cells obtained from cord blood into mature red blood cells in an acellular, serum free, cytokine supplemented medium. It is concluded that the umbilical cord blood can be used as an alternative source for CD34+ cells to differentiate mature red blood cells in vitro using serum free, cytokine supplemented culture media.
 
Kew words: Human umbilical cord, Hematopoietic stem cells
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3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6513-6522 (2018)
 
Adult neurogenesis in human and other mammals: A review
 
 Sharma, D. and Bhatnagar, M.
 
Department of Zoology, Government College, Chittorgarh (Rajasthan). E. mail: m.maheep@gmail.com,
 
Abstract: Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells. Early neuroanatomists, including Santiago Ramón y Cajal, believed that the nervous system is fixed and incapable of regeneration. The first evidence of adult mammalian neurogenesis was shown in the cerebral cortex in 1962 and later Joseph Altman in 1963 and 1969 in the dentate gyrus. Studies in the 1990s Elizabeth Gould suggested that adult neurogenesis may also occur in regions within the brain not generally associated with neurogenesis including the neocortex. However, scientists questioned the scientific evidence of these findings, arguing that the new cells may be of glial origin. Newborn neurons resulting from adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus play crucial roles in regulating mood, memory and spatial learning. Developmental neurogenesis and adult neurogenesis differ markedly. In most mammals, new neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain i.e., the subgranular zone (SGZ), part of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the striatum. Neurons formed in the SVZ migrate to the olfactory bulb, which is the area of the brain responsible for olfaction, our sense of smell. Preventing adult neurogenesis in the SVZ has been shown to impair cognitive functions including olfactory memory. In humans, however, few if any olfactory bulb neurons are generated after birth. Much more attention has been paid to neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus than in the other brain regions. Studies on the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus suggests that different factors can modulate adult neurogenesis. Exercise increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, resulting in the increased production of newborn neurons. Conversely, depression has been found to decrease neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis has also been shown to decline with age. Neuroscientists are now interested in developing ways to harness the brain’s reservoir of neural stem cells and progenitor cells to enhance hippocampal neurogenesis. By increasing production of newborn neurons, neuroscientists may be able to treat age-associated cognitive decline, neurodegenerative diseases including dementias, and mental illnesses. Recent research has elucidated the regulatory effect of GABA on neural stem cells. Adult neurogenesis is reported to play a role in learning and memory, emotion, stress, depression, response to injury, and other conditions. In this review we have discussed in detail the adult neurogenesis in humans in particular reference to neurogenic regions in brain, neurogenesis in mammals other than humans and its functional relevance to brain functions.
 
Key words: Adult neurogenesis, Human, Mammals
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4. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6523-6537 (2018)
 
Human Papilloma virus - A major invader in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A review
 
 Kirave, P., Pataskar, T., Gondaliya, P., Sunkaria, A. and Kalia, K.
 
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research-Ahmedabad, opposite Air Force Station,
Palaj, Gandhinagar-382355 (Gujarat). E. mail: director@niperahm.ac.in,
 
Abstract: It has been claimed in the Indian National Cancer Registry Programme Report, that there is an increase in percentage of cancers related to mouth, tongue, pharynx, hypopharynx, and oesophagus. There are numerous factors responsible for oral cancer amongst which Human Papilloma Virus (Type 16 and 18) plays a leading role in development of oral cancer. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is well-known under the category of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Approximately six million people found each year and around 9.0-13.0% of the world population (630 million) previously exposed with viral induced diseases are observed. Smoker is more susceptible to viral infection as compared to a non-smoker. The situation has become worse due to lack of availability of vaccines HPV related oral cancer. Biomarkers are indicators in detection of cancer. Moreover, deregulated microRNA’s act as biomarker in cancer. This review highlights global prevalence of the oral cancer through the decade; HPV causing genetic variations, dysregulation of microRNA and biomarkers. Apart from this, glimpse of molecular pathogenesis including current vaccination scenario as well as immune response is highlighted.
 
Key words:Human papilloma virus, Squamous cell carcinoma
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5. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6539-6543 (2018)
 
Implications of tobacco consumption on outcomes of urethroplasty performed using buccal mucosal graft
 
 Moteria, S., Shah, P., Sharma, N., Amlani, J. and Joshi, V.
 
Department of Urology, B. T. Savani Hospital, Rajkot 380009 (Gujarat).
 E. mail: drsunilmoteria@gmail.com,
 
Abstract: In this study, the impact of chewing tobacco was assessed on the outcomes of buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty in patients having long urethral strictures. This was a retrospective study in which patients who underwent urethroplasty, between January 2010 to January 2013, were included. Sixty-four patients were randomly divided into two groups, betel cum tobacco (BT) quid users, and BT quid non-users. Patients were followed up for 3 years. The patients were evaluated for uroflowmetry and success rates of buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty. Of the 64 patients, 24 were BT quid users and 40 were BT quid non-users. The majority (59.4%) of the strictures were inflammatory in nature. All patients had a previous history of surgery in the form of either visual internal urethrotomy or dilatation or suprapubic catheter or in combination. The mean (SD) follow-up was 18 (15.9) months.The changes in peak urinary flow rate and voiding time improved significantly post-surgery (p<0.0001). The success rate for BT quid users was 58.3% and BT quid non-users was 82.5%. Study shows that buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty provided improved outcomes in uroflowmetry measurements. The outcomes were better with greater success rates in BT quid non-users compared with BT quid users.
 
 Key words: Tobacco consumers, Urethroplasty
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6. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6545-6554 (2018)
 
Potential of white rot fungi in the degradation of textile dyes: A review
 
 Gohel, J.B., Parmar, B.P. and Vyas, B.R.M.
 
UGC-CAS Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot – 360 005.
E. mail: jayshreegohel26@gmail.com, brmvyas@hotmail.com,
 
Abstract: The release of dyes into the environment is one of the major environmental problems. Textile dyes are harmful and exert toxic effects to aquatic environments. Removal of textile dyes by physicochemical methods is costly and expensive. Biological methods can be used for the removal of textile dyes. Some fungi and bacteria possess potential to degrade the textile dyes. White rot fungi degrade the textile dyes using their ligninolytic enzyme systems. Ligninolytic enzymes like manganese independent peroxidase and laccase produced by white rot fungi, play in important role in the degradation of wide variety of xenobiotic compounds.
 
Key words: Textile dye, White rot fungi, Ligninolytic enzymes
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7.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6555-6558 (2018)
 
   Bacteria: The powerful creatures: A mini review
 
  Gupta, P.D.
 
  Adjunct Professor, Manipal University, Manipal  (Karnataka). E. mail: pdg2000@hotmail.com,
 
 Abstract: Bacteria through evolution suffered a lot and therefore they have adopted for their survival to live in extreme   environmental conditions. From Free living to they became commensal, symbiotic, parasitic and pathogenic too. During   their adaptation their properties also change, some are extremely beneficial to other organisms in various ways. But some   became hostile to mankind. With the development of data storing knowledge in DNA, bacterial DNA was also used for   this purpose and now we are in the era of making Biocomputers using bacteria as a source for storing information.
 
  Key words: Bacteria.
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8.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6559-6570 (2018)
 
Molecular diveristy of Nocardiopsis alba sp. isolated from the coastal region of Gujarat, India
 
 Dangar, K.G., Kalasava, A.B., Dave, A.V. and Singh, S.P.
 
Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360005, Gujarat (India).
 
Abstract: Nocardiopsis species are in demand for finding biotechnological potential and its adaptation strategies in saline habitats. Here we have reported the characterization of cultivable actinomycetes isolated from the coastal regions of the Gujarat, India. The assortment of seven diverse strains was obtained based on polyphasic approaches. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and analysis of each strain showed their affiliation to genus of Nocardiopsis belonging to family Nocardiopsaceae which covered gram positive bacteria. The classical approaches to screen the diversity and capability   have been covered under the umbrella of morphologic, biochemical and antibacterial properties of each isolated Nocardiopsis strains. While the molecular tapping of isolated Nocardiopsis albastrains was based on 16S r RNA gene sequences, and detection on repetition of nucleotide and its thermodynamics of sequences along its average nucleotides identities was performed to justify the diversity. Thus, ongoing efforts to characterize soil Nocardiopsis alba capability will add to our understanding to mine the utility of these bacteria as a source of useful products for biotechnology.
 
Key words: Nocardiopsis alba, 16s rRNAgene Sequence
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9.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6571-6572 (2018)
 
Efficiency of PCR in the detection of haemoparasitic infections in Buffy coat, lymph node and blood
 of dogs
 
Kalaivanan, M. and Saravanan, S.
 
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Veterinary College and Research Institute, TANUVAS, Namakkal 637 002, Tamil Nadu. E. Mail: sarvet_25@yahoo.com,
 
Abstract: Blood, buffy coat and lymph node biopsy samples were collected from dogs with clinical signs related to haemoparasites and screened for the haemoparasites E. canis, Babesia spp., H. canis and T. evansi by polymerase chain reaction. A high sensitivity for the haemoparasites by PCR on blood than any other type of samples was identified.
 
Key words: Haemoparasites, Lymph node, Buffy coat
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10. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6573-6582 (2018)
 
Micropropagation in banana using inflorescence: A review
 
Vincent, L. and Anushma, P.L.
 
Division of Fruit Crops, ICAR-Indian Institute  of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru 560089.
E. mail: linta.vincent7@gmail.co
 
Abstract: Bananas and plantains are the major fruit crops belonging to the genus Musa and they provide a well-balanced diet to millions of people. Demand of tissue cultured plants of banana is increasing rapidly for disease free planting material, crop improvement and genetic transformation. The male flower tissue culture technology either through direct organogenesis, indirect organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis creates an environment to provide disease free planting material by mass multiplication and genetic improvement. The purpose of this review is to focus on advances made in male flower tissue culture technology that could be used in the production of disease free planting material and crop improvement.
 
Key words: Banana, Inflorescence, Somatic embryogenesis
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11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 18(3): 6583-6611 (2018)
 
Heavy metal intoxication, oxidative stress and antioxidants therapy: A review
 
 Tyagi, S., Kalia, K., Chundawat, R.S. and Sood, P.P.
 
European Diplomate in Pediatric Pulmonology, Head of Pediatric Department, Metro Hospital , Noida (UP). E. mail: ppsood@yahoo.com,
 
Abstract: The survival of human race depends upon, better environmental management. Therefore, continuous and sincere efforts will have to be carried out by everyone involved in environmental management, protection, monitoring, assessment, research, education, planning, conservation and sustainable development to use the resources. ATSDR toxicological profiles [1-7], published in USA have reported a number of hazardous chemicals and characterized the toxicological and adverse health effects. Nevertheless, these as well as other recent studies are incapable to provide much information about therapeutic data. Therefore, studies on this subject are regularly carried out by several investigators where the animals were intoxicated with hazardous heavy metals, such as mercury, methyl mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, aluminum, zink, and other toxicants such as floride and arsanic etc. and thereafter, pre or post therapies were provided to eliminate the toxicants, to improve their health and to restore the altered conditions caused thereby. The objective of present contribution is to review the toxic effect of some heavy metals and possible therapy provided with antioxidants.
 
Key words: Heavy metals, Oxydative stress, Antioxidants
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