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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
Oxidative stress-induced formation of protein-4-hydroxynonenal adducts in lens epithelial cells: implication in oxidative cataractogenesis
1. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 181-188 (2004)

Oxidative stress-induced formation of protein-4-hydroxynonenal adducts in lens epithelial cells: Implication in oxidative cataractogenesis

Xiao, T., Choudhary, S., Vergara, L.A., Van Kuijk, F.J.G.M. and Ansari, N.H.

Department of Human Biological Chemistry and Genetics, University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas 77555-0647.

Abstract: Free radicals initiate peroxidation of membrane lipids leading to the formation of reactive hydroxyalkenals such as, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE). These metastable aldehydes being extremely reactive, form adducts with proteins which have been implicated in various oxidation-induced pathological conditions. Ocular lens is continuously exposed to oxidative stress, however involvement of protein adducts of hydroxyl alkenals has never been investigated. In this communication, using human lens epithelial cell culture, rat lens organ culture, diabetic human and rat lens we demonstrate that HNE and HHE are apoptotic to lens cells and under conditions of oxidative stress elevated levels of protein-HNE/Protein-HHE adducts are formed. Inclusion of antioxidants ameliorate the formation of protein-HNE/protein-HHE adducts as well as apoptosis. Our results suggest the significance of protein adducts of lipid peroxidation end-products in oxidative cataractogenesis.

Key words: Cataract, Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, 4-Hydroxynonenal, 4-Hydroxyhexenal, Protein-adducts, Apoptosis.

2. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 189-194 (2004)

Oxidative stress upon bilateral carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion in rat brain: a biochemical study

Naga, K.K., Panigrahi, M. and Babu, P.P.

Department of Animal sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 India.

Abstract: Bilateral carotid artery occlusion results in a wide spread ischemic episode in rat brain. Moreover, reperfusion causes oxidative damage to the tissue by massive production of free radicals. Therefore, present study was designed to understand the extent of oxidative stress upon bilateral carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion injury in the rat brain. The levels of reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation were estimated in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rat, which underwent 20 min carotid artery occlusion followed by various time periods of reperfusion. A significant decrease in reduced glutathione, an increase in oxidized glutathione and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed after 20 min carotid artery occlusion and 1 hour reperfusion. Most of the biochemical alterations were reverted back to normal after 24 hours of reperfusion. These data indicates oxidative stress is induced during reperfusion, although this does not cause early cell death but might results in more prolonged cell dysfunction and eventual neuronal loss. Key words: Oxidative stress, Carotid artery, Occlusion, Rat brain

3. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 195-199 (2004)

Interregulatory influence of parasympathetic and sympatho-adrenal systems on thyroid status in rats

Pilo, B. and Yadav, V.

Division of Neuroendocrinology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002. E-mail:

Abstract: The autonomous nervous system is known to influence the status of thyroid hormone through complex ways. Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) in their turn are involved in many homoeostatic mechanisms which include the basal metabolic rate and glucose level in blood. The interrelationship of regulatory interplay between the two division of the autonomic nervous system along with adrenal and pituitary involvement was investigated in rats. In vagotomized rats (VGX) the level of T3 was found to increase. Serum T4 and TSH levels were found to decrease. Following adrenalectomy (ADX) the thyroid hormones showed a similar increase in T3 and similar decrease in T4 and TSH levels. Chemical sympathectomy (CSX) produced a decline in the thyroid hormone levels. A concomitant increase in TSH was observed. These alterations in thyroid hormone and TSH levels were more pronounced when chemical sympathectomy was combined with adrenalectomy (CSX+ADX). When chemical sympathectomy was combined with vagotomy (CSX+VGX), T3 level together with that of TSH decreased while T4 level increased. The results indicate that autonomic nervous system is involved in the regulation of thyroid function in homoeostatic mechanisms including glycaemic control.

Key words: Vagotomy, Adernalectomy, Sympathectomy, Thyroid hormones, Glycaemia.

4. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 201-205 (2004)

Autonomic nervous system and growth hormone secretion and their combined effect on blood sugar level in rats

Pilo, B. and Sule, J.

The Division of Neuroendocrinology, Department of Zoology, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 India. E-mail:

Abstract: Growth hormone in addition to its growth promoting function has many other important biological activities. It exerts its influence on the glucose metabolism through its anti insulin and glucose releasing activities. Growth hormone mobilizes glucose from the carbohydrate and noncarbohydrate sources in the body. Its effect on protein metabolism is anabolic in nature. In the present investigation, GH profiles were estimated in various conditions of neural and endocrine manoeuvres by eliminating the different components of the autonomic nervous system, alone and in different combinations. Vagotomized (VGX) rats manifested an increased GH level, as also did the animals with combinations of vagotomy with sympathectomy (CSX+VGX) and adrenalectomy (VGX+ADX). However, the latter two conditions did not show a very significant increase. CSX rats manifested a decrease in the level of GH in the serum. Rats with ADX and CSX+ADX showed a very pronounced decrease in GH levels. The increase in GH levels in groups where vagotomy was performed (VGX, VGX+ADX, CSX+VGX) indicates that vagal denervation seems to have a major effect on the status of this hormone. The growth hormone increase in these animals also coincides with hyperglycaemia. The decrease observed in CSX, ADX and CSX+ADX conditions could be because of the removal of catecholamines and glucocorticoids which have a stimulatory effect on the secretion of this hormone. These animals showed a marked decrease in blood glucose level. It is therefore concluded that rats with CSX+ADX combination are able to restrain the rise in GH level more efficiently than either CSX or ADX alone. The growth hormone level is also correlated with glucose level.

Key words: Vagotomy, Adernalectomy , Sympathectomy, Growth hormone, Glucoregulation.

5. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 207-209 (2004)

Generation of synthetic seeds from different varieties of Carica papaya L.

Saha, M., Phatak, A. and Chandra, N.

Department of Botany, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 India. E-mail:

Synthetic seeds were generated by the encapsulation of the somatic embryos in Carica papaya L. varieties Co-2, Co-5, Co-6, Coorg Honey Dew, Disco, Madhubindu, Madhur, Pusa Dwarf and Washington. For in vitro germination, synthetic seeds [sodium alginate dissolved in ½ MS or MS medium, each fortified with ABA (1.0 mg/l)] were inoculated on MS medium or on MS medium fortified with BAP (0.2 mg/l) and NAA (0.02 mg/l). Double-layered synthetic seeds were produced to overcome the contamination (bacterial and fungal) problems during direct greenhouse planting of the synthetic seeds
Key words: Somatic embryo, Encapsulation, Synthetic seeds

6. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 211-214 (2004)

In vitro culture studies in four dioecious varieties of Carica papaya L. using axillary buds from field-grown plants

Saha, M., Phatak, A. and Chandra, N. Department of Botany, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 India.

Abstract: In vitro culture study via multiple shoots was attempted using axillary bud explants from field grown plants in four dioecious varieties of Carica papaya L. viz. Co-5, Madhur, Pusa Dwarf and Washington. Established axillary bud explants were inoculated on various induction and proliferation media for the multiple shoots and the elongation media for the elongation of the shoots. IBA dip treatment given to the cut end of the shoots produced healthy roots. The combination of soil: vermiculite: cow dung (1: 1: 1) were used as substratum for the hardening of the plantlets.

Key words: In vitro culture, Carica papaya L, Axillary buds.

7. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 215-219 (2004)

Toxic effect of aflatoxin on vas deferens of mice and its amelioration on pretreatment with vitamin E

Verma, R.J. and Nair, A.

Department of Zoology, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009 India.

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of aflatoxin on histopathological and biochemical changes in the vas deferens of mice and its possible amelioration on pretreatment with vitamin E. Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 and 50 μg of aflatoxin/animal/day for 45 days. Vas deferens was isolated and processed for histopathological and biochemical analysis. Results revealed dose-dependent, significant reductions, as compared with controls, in absolute and relative weights of vas deferens. Histopathological studies revealed pyknosis in the nuclei of the epithelium and an increase in the thickness of lamina propria in vas deferens of aflatoxin-treated mice. The stereocilia were clumped and the lumen did not contain the sperms. While glycogen and protein contents were significantly reduced, the phosphorylase activity was higher in aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) pretreatment significantly restored the aflatoxin-induced histopathological and biochemical changes. The recovery was more in low dose toxicated mice than that of high dose. The results showed that vitamin E pretreatment significantly ameliorates aflatoxin-induced changes in vas deferens of mice.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Vitamin E, Vas deferens.

8. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 221-225 (2004)

A biochemical study on the effect of thiodan on the common Indian frog Euphlyctis hexadactylus

Josephjohn, K., Vimla, J., Jayapraksh, T.N., and Kakaria, V.K.

Department of Zoology, St. Thomas College, Kozhencheri, Pathananthitta, Kerala 689 641 India.
E mail:

Abstract: Frogs, Euphlyctis hexadactylus, were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of 0.1ppm and 0.2 ppm of thiodan for 5 days, 10 days, 15 days and 20 days respectively and the fluctuations of total proteins, glycogen in the liver, muscles, brain and kidney were estimated. Along with this, the variations in acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in blood serum and RBC and WBC counts were also recorded. Study shows progressive decrease of total proteins and glycogen as well as in RBC and WBC count. The alkaline phosphatase activity increases with increasing the dose and duration of thiodan treatment. However, acid phosphatase decreases initially but later on show increasing trend.

Key words: Thiodan toxicity, Biochemical changes, Frog

9. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 227-230 (2004)

Paraquet induced selective neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of mice

Bhatnagar, M., Saxena, A. and Bhatnagar, R. Department of Zoology, University College of Science, Mohan Lal Sukhadia University, Udaipur. India. E-mail:

Abstract: Young adult mice (age 45 days) were exposed to Paraquet (20mg /Kg BW, intra peritoneally) for 10 days develop selective neurodegeneration in the hippocampal region of the brain. Light microscopic cresyl violet staining of the serial paraffin sections passing through hippocampal region demonstrate 90 % loss of neuron cell bodies in CA3 region. Neurodegenerative changes were characterized as pyknotic nuclei, peripheral and central chromatolysis, shrinkage, vacuoles in cytoplasm and loss of stainable material. Study thus demonstrates specific and selective neurodegenerative effect of weedicide paraquet on hippocampal neuron cell bodies. Observation of other brain areas such as cerebral cortex, substantia nigra, hippocampus and amygdaloid area did not show any neurodegeneration.

Key words: Paraquet, Neurodegeneration, Hippocampus, Mice

10. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 231-237 (2004)

Vitamins and glutathione are ideal therapeutic agents to cope up with chromium toxicity

Chundawat, R.S. and Sood, P.P.

Laboratory of Neurobiology and Toxicology, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 005 India.

Abstract: Importance of exogenous application of GSH and vitamins (vitamin B complex and E) in the acceleration of chromium elimination and in the reversal of toxicity induced biochemical lesions have been discussed in the present investigation. Developing chicks were used as experimental animals. Two-day-old animals were intoxicated with a daily dose (10mg/Kg/day) of hexagonal chromium (K2Cr2O7) by intramuscular injections for 7 days. Thereafter, the animals were divided in to 5 groups. Two groups of animals were kept as control and given vehicle only. Amongst toxicated animals 2 groups were sacrificed on 9th and 16th day along with controls. Rest of the 3 chromium intoxicated groups were treated separately with GSH, vitamins B complex and vitamin E respectively from day 9 to day 15 and sacrificed on 16th day. Study shows deposition of chromium in all the tissues along with reduced development of the animals, reduced body and tissue weights and decrease of total proteins, carbohydrate and lipids in all major tissues of chick. Interestingly enough, the application of vitamins and GSH accelerate the chromium excretion and simultaneously reverted all these effects and regained the animal growth suggesting the suitability of the therapeutic agents.

Key words: Chromium toxicity, Vitamins, Glutathione

11. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 239-241 (2004)

Single dose systemic oral fluconazole for the treatment of acute and chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis

Behrouzi, R., and Moussavi, Z. Department of gynecology and midwifery, Faculty of Midwifery, BD, Khazar, Sari-Iran, Iran.

Abstract: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a very common gynecological problem in women of all age groups that most commonly treated with topical antifungal agents of azole groups. Fluconazole administered in a single oral 150mg is an offered treatment for acute or chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy and safety of fluconazole in the treatment of acute or chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis. A total 58 patients who had an acute or chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis diagnosed clinically and by culture, were offered treatment with single oral dose fluconazole 150mg. Post therapy evaluation were conducted 7-14 days and 4 week after treatment. Clinical cure, at the 7-14 days evaluation was 84.3% in the acute group and 73% in the chronic group. At the 4-week follow up 80.7% of acute group and 73.9% of chronic group were consider clinically cured. At the 7-14 days evaluation, 87.5% of the acute group compare to (69.2%) of the chronic group had mycological cure. At 4 week follow up; there was still a significant lower mycological eradication in the chronic group (65.2%) compare to acute group (84.6%). Fluconazole as a single dose systemic oral 150mg has been found effective in the treatment of clinical symptom of both acute and chronic candida vulvovaginitis but mycology cure in the chronic infection has shown significantly lesser than acute infection.

Key words: Fluconazole, Vulvovaginal, Candidiasis

12. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 243-247 (2004)

Fluconazole as single oral dose compared with clotrimazole in the treatment of Candida vaginitis

Moussavi, Z., Behrouzi, R. and Khalilian, A. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Salman Farsi St., Sari-Iran, Iran. E-mail:

Abstract: Vaginal candidiasis is a common and worldwide problem that can sometimes seriously disrupt the life of affected patients. Oral fluconazole has recently been used as systemic, single-dose therapy for candidia vaginitis. Our objective was to compare the efficacy and safety of single oral dose of fluconzole with 7 days of therapy with clotrimazole vaginal cream as treatment of patients with acute or recurrent candida vaginitis. We conducted a clinical trial, single ­ blinded study of 72 patients with acute and recurrent candida vaginitis. After confirmed candida vaginitis with clinically and mycologically examinations, patients were randomized to receive either fluconazole (150 mg single oral dose) or clotrimazole (cream vaginal %1 for 7 day). Post therapies were conducted one week and four weeks after treatment. At the 7-14 day evaluation, cure was seen in 81.58% of fluconazole and 85.3% of clotrimazole group patients. At the 4-week evaluation, 78.12% of floconazole and 70% of clotrimazole groups remained clinically cured. Mycologic cure, at the 7-14 day evaluation was seen in (76.32%) of fluconazole and (70.59%) of clotrimazole groups. At the 4-week evaluation, 71.87% of fluconazole and 60% of clotrimazole group remained mycologically cured. No statistically significant differences were seen between fluconazole and clotrimazole groups (P>0.05). In both groups, patients who had recurrent and sever vaginitis were significantly less likely to respond clinically and mycologically (P<0.05). Only 10.52% of the fluconazole and (8.8%) of the clotrimazole patients groups showed mild side effects. Study shows that fluconazole, as a single oral dose (150 mg), proved to be safe and effective such as 7 days of intervaginal clotrimazole therapy for candida vaginitis and because of low side effects and easily usage, it is a treatment of choice in women.

Key word: Fluconazole, Clotrimazole, Candida vaginits.

13. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 249-252 (2004)

The prevalence of chlamydia infection among pregnant women in Iran: an immunofluorescens study

Behrouzi, R., and Moussavi, Z. Department of gynecology and midwifery, Faculty of Midwifery, BD, Khazar, Sari-Iran.

Abstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common and spoiling sexually transmitted diseases in different countries. It plays an important role in disease such as salpingitis and arthritis, crevicitis, premature rupture of membrane, neonatal infection while passing through the vaginal, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection among the pregnant women who were referred to one the prenatal clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This research included 400 pregnant women who had been selected by a two stage program from the women referring to perinatal care clinics of Tehran University of medical Sciences. The mean for gathering data was a questionnaire contained demographical and socioeconomic questions. Samples of cervical discharge and serum examined by direct immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence techniques. The prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women referring to these perinatal care clinics was about 2.75 percent. Among 400 samples of cervical discharge examined by microimmunofluorescence technique, IgG and secretory IgA titers 1>8 were found in 8 women (2%) indicating active infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The results showed that variables like the age of marriage, history of vaginal discharge, dysuria, and education are related to the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in women. According to the results, Chlamydia infections are common among the pregnant women, therefore it was suggested that all of the women high risk for Chlamydia infection should be screened during pregnancy.

Keywords: Pregnant women, Chlamydia trachomatis.

14. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 253-256 (2004)

Role of polyunsaturated fatty acids against zinc sulphate toxicity in the gills of a catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)

Kothari, S.*, and Soni, R.

School of Studies in Zoology, Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010 India. E-mail:

Abstract: The sublethal exposure of ZnSO4 (150 mg l-1) to freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bl.) for 30 days caused significant alteration in gill function as revealed by elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and decline in protein and glucose contents over controls. Simultaneous feeding of polyunsaturated fatty acids [Essential phospholipids (EPL) to the fish maintained these parameters near normal values. Results suggest preventive action of EPL against Zn induced changes in these biochemical parameters.

Key words: Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Zinc sulphate toxicity, Catfish

15. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 257-262 (2004)

Protective value of concomitant administration of trace elements against arsenic toxicity in rats

Modi, M., Richa, G., Prasad, G.B.K.S. and Flora, S.J.S. Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474 002 India. Email:

Abstract: Protective effect of zinc, copper and selenium against arsenic toxicity was investigated. Trace metal administration, particularly zinc together with arsenic decreased the blood and liver uptake of arsenic and reduced the arsenic induced inhibition of blood d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. Zinc and selenium administration also provide significant protection to the liver injury caused by arsenic. No significant protection, however, was provided by copper supplementation. The results suggest potential role of concomitant zinc administration during arsenic exposure in animals.

Key words: Protection, Trace elements, Arsenic toxicity

16. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 263-273 (2004)

Fluoride in drinking water in Rajasthan and its ill effects on human health. 
Review Article

Hussain, J., Sharma, K.C. and Hussain, I.

Department of Environmental Studies, M.D.S. University, Ajmer 305 009 India. E-mail:

17. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 275-278 (2004)

Microdialysis as a novel in vivo bioanalytical sampling technique. Review Article

Dube, S.N.

Director, Defence Research Laboratory, Tejpur-784001 India.  E-mail: Short Communication

18. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 279-280 (2004)

Papaya seed extract enhances lipid peroxidation in liver: An in vitro study

Verma, R.J. and Nambiar Deepa

Department of Zoology, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009 India.
E-mail: Short Communication

19. Journal of Tissue Research Vol. 4 (2) 281-282 (2004)

Assessment of female sexual dysfunction in Iranian women. Short Communication 

, R., Moussavi, Z. and Khalilian, A.R.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Salman Farsi St, Sari-Iran,  E-mail:
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