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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
Volume 5(1) - 2005

1. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 283-286 (2005)

EVALUATION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATION AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN HUMAN SUBJECTS HANDLING GALLIUM ARSENIDE IN A SEMICONDUCTOR UNIT

GUPTA, M., VERMA, S., SONI, N.L. AND BANSAL, J. K.

Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Road, Delhi 110 054 India.
E-mail: drmanjugupta1@rediff.com

Abstract: The study was conducted to assess blood arsenic levels in a group of 30 persons engaged in an gallium arsenide industry for approximately 10+2 yrs. and also to determine whether long term exposure of arsenic led to any haematological, biochemical, enzymatic, hormonal and cytogenetic variations in human body. Mean blood samples were collected from working subjects and same number of healthy controls. Mean blood arsenic concentration in experimental and control groups were found to be 12.75+0.81 ng/ml and 4.82+0.05 ng/ml (mean +SE), respectively. Statistical differences in all the observations related to chromosomal aberrations of experimental and control groups were insignificant. Activities of enzymes like acid phosphate, alkaline phosphate, lactate dehydrogenase and albumin were same as in controls subjects. Blood cell count, hemoglobin, ESR and RBC morphology was also very much similar to unexposed persons. We also found no adverse correlation of thyroid hormones (T3-p>0.8, T4-p>0.41, TSH-p>0.37) between control and arsenic expososed persons. However, in the  subject consuming locally prepared ayurvedic medicine the blood arsenic level was found 19 times higher (195.2 ng/ml) than other persons from same group. His blood arsenic level was determined at regular intervals after withdrawl of the medicine and we observed a significant fall in his blood arsenic level at each interval (24 hrs.- 195.2 ng/ml, 48 hrs. - 48.5 ng, one week - 19.9ng, one month - 10.8 ng/ml of blood). The study concludes a moderate increase in blood arsenic level in subjects handling gallium arsenide compared to controls but it was within permissible limits despite long- term exposure. No change in biochemical profile of these subjects was noted. All the subjects of experimental group were using strict protective measures while working with gallium arsenide.

Key words: Arsenic, Human subjects, Semiconductor unit


2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 287-292 (2005)

ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA IN STRESS PLUS PYLORIC LIGATION INDUCED GASTRIC ULCER IN RATS.

BHATNAGAR, M., JAIN, C.P. AND SISODIA, S.S.

Cell and Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University College of Science, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur. E-mail: mbhatnagar@yahoo.com

Abstract: Anti-ulcer activity of  methanolic  extract of  Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and its action against stress plus pyloric  ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats has been reported. Treatment with Withania somnifera extract (100 mg/Kg/day p.o.) for 15 days significantly reduced ulcer index as compared to control group. Extract also significantly reduced volume of gastric secretion, free acidity and  total acidity. Significant increase in total carbohydrate (TC) and TC / total protein (TP) ratio of gastric juice was also observed. No significant change in the total protein was noted.  A significant increase in antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) but  decrease  in   malondialdihyde (MDA)  was observed.  Withania somnifera  extract  was found to be an effective antiulcerogenic agent, whose activity can well be compared with that of ranitidine hydrochloride. The present study suggests that Withania somnifera  have  not only  inhibitory effects on release of gastric hydrochloric acid but it also increase  various defensive factors  including  antioxidant defense  to  protect gastric mucosal damage

Key words: Anti-ulcer activity,  Withania somnifera, Stress plus Pyloric  ligation


3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 293-298 (2005)

Protective effect OF vitamins (C & E) ON LEAD INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE SWISS MICE

Banu, R. and Sharma, R.
 
Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur  313 001 India.
E mail: achulet@yahoo.com

Abstract: The effect of vitamin E and C on lead induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in the present study. The animals were bred in animal house under optimum conditions. Selected mice with 5-6 weeks of age and 20-25 gm of body weight were selected and divided into five groups of 10 animals each. These groups were : Control (C), lead-treated (L), lead plus vitamin E treated (LE), lead plus vitamin C treated (LC) and lead plus vitamin E plus vitamin C treated (LCE). In all these five groups lead, vitamin E and vitamin C were administered in the dose of 160 mg/kg/day, 160 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day respectively. At the end of 90th day liver was excised out for the histopathological examination. A number of histopathological changes were noted in the liver treated with lead. These changes were ameliorated with the administration of antioxidant vitamins like vitamin C and E. The hepatoprotective effects of these vitamins were found as in the following order: vitamin C plus vitamin E > vitamin C > vitamin E. Our results suggest that antioxidant vitamins C and E exert significant protection against toxic liver damage caused by lead. It evidences that both the vitamins C and E may have a marked hepatoprotective activity.

Key words: Lead, Liver, Vitamin C, Vitamin E


4. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 299-302 (2005)

REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF A FUNGICIDE COMBINATION (METALAXYL + MANCOZEB) IN ADULT MALE RATS

RAO, M.V., SUNDAR, R.S. AND CHAWLA, S.L.

 Reproductive Toxicology and Endocrinology Unit, Department of Zoology, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009 India. E mail: Zooldeptgu@satyam.net.in

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a fungicide combination (metalaxyl+mancozeb) on testes, epididymis and fertility of rats. Adult male rats were orally administered metalaxyl+mancozeb (500 mg/Kg body wt/day) for 60 days. For recovery studies, treated animals were kept for a further period of two months.  In metalaxyl+mancozeb treated rats, a significant reduction in the epididymal sperm count, motility and viability was seen. The activities of testicular 3b, 17b hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and protein levels were also decreased, whereas the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases and the level of cholesterol were also altered in testes followed by a fall of serum androgen level. The affected reproductive parameters probably contributed to a reduction in fertility of these rats. The combination of fungicide thus manifested toxic effects in reproductive tissues of male rats, which were partially reversible after cessation of treatment.

Key words: Metalaxyl + Mancozeb, Reproductive toxicity, Male rats


5. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 303-308 (2005)

EARLIER CHANGES IN SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM OF RATS EXPOSED TO ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOMETHYL ETHER

VACHHRAJANI, K.D. 

Division of Toxicology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 India. E-mail: kauresh123-zoo@msubaroda.ac.in

Abstract: Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) induces testicular toxicity as early as within 2 days post exposure. A quantitative analysis of primary spermatocytes was carried out to investigate into the stage-wise changes during first 48h following single inhalation exposure of rats to 1000 ppm EGME for 1h. Initial changes appeared at 16h at stages IX, XII and XIV of seminiferous epithelium. At 24h, pachytene spermatocytes preparing for meiotic division (stages XII-early XIII) and those undergoing the division (stags late XIII-early XIV) showed severe effects. Damage to zygotene spermatocytes resulted into pachytene spermatocyte cell loss. At 32h, large population of early and late pachytene spermatocytes was necrotic and meiotic figures were decreased. Consequently, at 48h, few tubultes at stages I-III were devoid of round spermatids. Cell death progressed in a wave-like manner; therefore, attempts havebeen made to identify the damage to spermatocytes during progressive developmental phases.

Key words: Seminiferous epithelium, Ethylene glycol, Rat


6. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 309-311 (2005)

DAMAGE TO LATE PACHYTENE SPERMATOCYTE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SUBSEQUENT INHIBITION OF SPERMATOGENIS BY METHYLMERCURY

VACHHRAJANI, K. D.

Division of Toxicology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 India. E-mail: kauresh123-zoo@msubaroda.ac.in

Abstract: Male wistar rats were administered with single i.p. dose of 250 mg methylmercury to investigate its effects on pachytene spermatocytes over a period of 24 days (two cycles of seminiferous epithelium). Earliest effect was observed at day 1 and lowest yield of these cells was found at day 2. Maturational depletion of spermatids due to damage to pachytene spermatocytes was found at day 12. A transient effect was exhibited on frequencies of occurrence of different stages. Studies suggested that exposure to methymercury may affect the spermatogenic cycle duration. Present findings showed that earlier changes in pachytene spermatocytes at stages IX-XIV lead to spermatogenic arrest and depletion of more mature spermatogenic cells.

Key words: Methylmercury, Spermatogenesis

7. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 313-321 (2005)

DISTURBANCE IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN DEVELOPING CHICK DURING CHROMIUM (VI) INTOXICATION AND restoration during therapy

SOOD, P.P.. and CHUNDAWAT,  R.S..
 
Laboratory of Neurobiology and Toxicology, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 005 India.
E-mail: ppsood@yahoo.com

Abstract: The contribution deals with the disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism in  Cr (IV) intoxicated developing chick and its reinstallation during vitamins (B and E) and GSH post therapies. Two day old chicks were treated with a daily dose of 10 mg/Kg potassium dichromate from 2nd to 8th day of their age. Thereafter, one group was sacrificed on 9th day. Second group was kept without intoxication for another 7 days and sacrificed on 16th day of its age. Three groups of chromium pre-toxicated animals were exposed to therapeutic agents viz., vitamins (B and E) and glutathione for another seven days. These animals were sacrificed on 16th day of their age along with control. Study showed decrease of all major carbohydrates (total sugar, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and glycogen) and metabolizing enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase and lactic dehydrogenase) in liver, kidney, muscles and serum in chromium intoxicated animals. The therapeutic groups exhibited significant recovery of all these components during post therapy indicating their suitability as therapeutic agents.

Key words: Chromium, Carbohydrate metabolism, Therapy


8. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 323-325 (2005)

HYPERHYDRICITY IN AXILLARY BUD EXPLANTS OF CARICA PAPAYA L. REGENERATED IN VITRO

SAHA, M., PHATAK, A.  AND CHANDRA, N.

Department of Botany, B.N. Bandodkar College, Thane 400 601 India. E-mail: m_saha1@vsnl.net     

Abstract: Hyperhydricity (50 to 100%) was observed in the axillary bud explants of Carica papaya L. varieties Co-6, Coorg Honey Dew, Red Lady and Washington regenerated in vitro on different media. The present work included a study on the reduction in hyperhydricity of the axillary bud explants regenerated in vitro. The axillary bud explants treated with pulses of GA3 (500 mg/l) for 1 hour and then inoculated on MS medium fortified with MgSO4 (400 mg/l) showed reduction in hyperhydricity.

Key words: Hyperhydricity, Axillary bud explants, Carica papaya L.


9. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 327-329 (2005)

De-novo differentiation of shoots of Dianthus barbatus from callus cultures

PAREEK, A.  AND   PAREEK, L.K.

Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004 India. E-mail: lkpareek@yahoo.com

Abstract: Plant regeneration of Dianthus barbatus was achieved through organogenesis in callus cultures. Calli were induced from leaf explants on MS basal medium containing 0.5 mg/l 2, 4-D and 1 mg/l BAP. Green or yellow green compact nodules containing clusters of meristematic centers were induced in these calli after transfer to MS basal medium containing 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BAP. A combination of 0.5 mg/l NAA plus 1 mg/l BAP promoted the highest percentage of calli to form nodules. The nodules formed adventitious shoots on MS basal medium containing 0.5 mg/l NAA plus 1 mg/l BAP. Shoots were elongated on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l GA3. MS medium containing 2 mg/l IBA promoted rooting in all the in vitro regenerated shoots. The rooted plantlets were transferred to field conditions where there was an almost 100% transplantation success.

Key words:Shoots, Callus cultures, Dianthus barbatus


10. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 331-335 (2005)

Biochemical and haematological alterations in rats following acute inhalation exposure of gasoline, methanol and gasoline: Methanol blend

Joshi, G.S. and Verma, R.J.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zydus Research Centre, Sarkhej-Bavla, Moraiya, Ahmedabad 382 213.
Email: ramtejverma2000@yahoo.com

Abstract: Gasoline is a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and used as a motor fuel.  Current trend to add methanol to gasoline (10:90, v/v) warrants toxicological evaluation of gasoline:methanol blend.  The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of  gasoline:methanol blend vapours exposure which caused a significant increase in acid phosphatase activities in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF)  and lung as well as LDH activity in the serum of rat.  The proteins content was increased significantly in the lung and insignificant in serum as compared to control.  The study showed rise in haemoglobin, haematocrit, MCV and lymphocytes and decrease in MCHC, platelets, neutrophils and eosinophil count. All these changes were significant. Nevertheless, methanol exposure alone did not show significant changes. The above findings indicate inflammatory reaction along with increased phagocytic activity in the lungs of rats exposed to gasoline and gasoline:methanol blend through inhalation route of exposure.

Key words: Gasoline, Methanol, Inhalation toxicity, Rat


11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 337-340 (2005)

EFFECT OF SMOKING ON HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN HUMAN BEINGS

VERMA, R.J. AND PATEL, C.S. 

Department of Zoology, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009 India.
E-mail: ramtejverma2000@yahoo.com

Abstract : Fresh peripheral blood samples from healthy adult non-smokers and smokers (males) were collected and analysed for RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb) content, packed cell volume (PCV), MCV, MCH and MCHC, total and differential leucocytes (WBC) counts and total platelets count. The results revealed significant reduction in RBC count, Hb content and PCV in smokers. Study shows that total WBC count, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes were significantly increased in smokers; however lymphocytes count was significantly decreased. Platelets counts were significantly higher in smokers than that of non-smokers. It is concluded that smoking alters hematological parameters that is injurious to health.

Key words: Smoking, Hematology


12. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 341-344 (2005)

RADIOPROTECTIVE CAPACTIVITY OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AGAINST RADIATION INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN LIVER OF SWISS ALBINO MICE

SHARMA, A. AND GOYAL, P.K.
 
Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004 India.E-mail: pkgoyal2002@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Radio protective effect of fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (EO) has been studied against lethal dose (7.5 Gy) of gamma radiation in the liver of Swiss albino mice at various post-irradiation intervals viz. 12 hrs, 24 hrs and 3rd, 5th, 10th,20th  and 30th days. In control animals (without EO treated irradiated), an elevation in glycogen and protein content was found till day 3rd and 5th respectively. Thereafter, their levels decreased at consecutive intervals without reaching to normal. In this group of animals, cholesterol level is found to be significantly lower than normal at 12 hrs, but later increased at remaining intervals. Acid and alkaline phosphatases activities were significantly higher than the normal value at early intervals but later increased progressively. A similar pattern of biochemical alterations was exhibited by experimental group (EO pretreated irradiated) but to a lower extent. EO extract significantly delayed and inhibited the rise in biochemical parameters. The increased glycogen and protein activity was noted at day 3rd and 5th respectively, but it was found significantly lesser than the control. Normal values of these constituents were regained on day 20th; while in control animals, normal value was not ever attained. Cholesterol level declined significantly in comparison to control, but later elevated and reached to normal level. Variations in acid and alkaline phosphatases activities were found similar to that of control but their values were considerably lower and later attained the normal level before the end of study.

Key words: Biochemical alterations,Irradiation, Emblica officinalis, Swiss albino mice


13. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 345-348 (2005)

EFFECT OF TYROSINE ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF MARINE MALE CRAB, SCYLLA SERRATA: A BIOCHEMIAL STUDY

MANEKAR, A.P., GODSHALWAR, M.P., REWALE, M.M. AND SINGH, M.R.
 
Oceanography Laboratory, Department of Zoology, The Institute of Science, 15 Madam Cama Road,
Mumbai 400 032. E-mail: drmanekarap@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Changes in the biochemical parameters, important enzymes and in free amino acid concentration in central nervous system of male crab (Scylla serrata) after the treatment of tyrosine was studied. They were injected with amino acid tyrosine at a dose of 4 mg/120 gm body weight for seven days. Analysis of free amino acids, enzyme activity, protein and lipid concentration was carried out. Concentration of phenylalanine significantly increased in CNS. Enzyme activity increased in eyestalk but decreased in brain. Elevation in concentration of lipids protein, DNA, RNA was observed.

Key words: Tyrosine, CNS, Crab, Biochemical changes


14. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 349-351 (2005)

EFFECT OF RESTRAINED STRESS ON OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND LIPOFUSCIN CONTENT OF CEREBELLUM OF RAT

CHAUDHARY, A., SHARMA, R.K. AND SAINI, K.

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 India. E-mail: drchaudhary2000@yahoo.com 

Abstract: The generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage play a pivotal role in neuronal ageing. In the present study three months old albino wistar rat (Rattus norvagicus) were subjected to restrained stress for 24, 48 and 72h and changes in oxygen consumption were analyzed. The oxygen consumption increased from 4.11 to 5.096 after 24 h of stress, thereafter a decline was recorded (4.099 and 3.959 CC oxygen/gm body weight/sec.) in 48 and 72 h of stress respectively. Fluorescence microscopy revealed intraneuronal localization of lipofuscin after restrained stress. Control animals show very few autofluorescent bodies and after stress of various durations, Purkinje neurons revealed significant higher lipofucin content.

Key words: Oxygen consumption, Stress, Lipofuscin,  Purkinje Neuron


15. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 353-356 (2005)

CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AND PANCREATIC ISLET FUNCTIONS IN PINEALECTO-MIZED PIGEONS REPLACED WITH MELATONIN IN THE BREEDING SEASON

PATEL, C., BANERJEE, S.  AND RAMACHANDRAN, A.V.
 
Division of Metabolic Endocrinology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, Gujarat, India. E mail: av_rama@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The present study was designed to assess the effect of melatonin (M) replacement on carbohydrate metabolism in pinealectomised pigeons in the breeding season, in terms of blood glucose level, tissue glycogen contents, activity levels of hepatic phosphorylase and G-6-P’ase, pancreatic islet function as well as insulin and glucagon levels. The male blue rock pigeons, Columba livia, were pinealectomised (Px) and 2 different doses of melatonin were injected intraperitoneally. Pinealectomy resulted in hypoglycemia and hepatic and muscle glycogen depletion together with b cell degranulation and increased serum insulin level.  Hepatic phosphorylase and G-6-P’ase activities were decreased.  Neither of the two doses (50mg or 100 mg/Kg body weight) used, seemed capable of preventing the Px induced effects on carbohydrate metabolism, though the higher dose to a certain extent was effective in attenuating the Px-induced alterations. An overall data show that an optimum level and duration of melatonin is necessary for normal carbohydrate homeostasis and pancreatic islet functions.

Key words:  Pinealectomy, Melatonin, Pancreatic islet, Carbohydrate metabolism


16. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 357-361 (2005)

OCCURRENCE OF SALT DEPENDENT PLASMID AMONG HALOALKALIPHILIC ISOLATES FROM SALINE HABITAT OF COSTAL GUJARAT, INDIA

PATEL, R.K., OZA, S.M. AND SINGH, S.P.

Department of Life Sciences, North Gujarat University, Pattan 384 265. E. mail: raj252000@yahoo.com

Abstract: Haloalkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from salt enriched soil and water samples collected from the natural saline and hyper saline habitats from Saurashtra region of coastal Gujarat, India. The growth responses of the isolates were studied in complete media at pH 7.0 and 9.5 in presence of 0 % and 10 % salt. The isolates were further investigated for their antibiotic resistance. The occurrence of plasmid was detected in the presence and absence of salt. All the three isolates showed presence of salt dependent plasmid having 14 Kb size.

Key words: Haloalkaliphilic, Plasmid, Hypersaline, Hyperalkaline


17. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 363-368 (2005)

MODIFICATION OF CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS BY LIPID-DERIVED ALDEHYDES IN THE LENS EPITHELIAL CELLS
 
Xiao, T., Zhang, M., Choudhary, S., VeRgara, L. and Ansari, N.H.

Department of Human Biological Chemistry & Genetics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-0647. E-mail: nansari@utmb.edu

Abstract: Oxidative stress has been implicated both in senile and diabetic cataractogenesis and recent evidence suggest that the lipid peroxidation product, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) mediates the oxidation-induced toxicity.  Using human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) and rat lens we have demonstrated that HNE and oxidants such as Fenton reagent induce opacification in the rat lens and apoptosis in HLEC and lens epithelium with a concommitant formation of protein-HNE adducts and disruption of the cytoskeleton.  Vimentin and actin were the major cytoskeletal proteins to be degraded by these agents.  Tubulin on the other hand was resistant to degradation and displayed a compensatory increase in expression.  Our studies suggest that under oxidative stress antioxidants/HNE-scavengers could ameliorate the formation of protein-HNE adducts, stabilize the lens cytoskeleton and thus prevent cataractogenesis.

Key words:  Cataract, Cytoskeleton, Diabetes, Oxidative stress, 4-Hydroxynonenal


 18. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 369-380 (2005)

MECHANISM OF ARSENIC RESISTANCE IN MICROBIAL CELLS

KALIA, K. AND PATEL, P.C.
 
Post Graduate Department of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120 Gujarat,
India. E mail: kirankalia-in@yahoo.com

Abstract: The use of microorganisms for the recovery of arsenic from waste streams has achieved growing attention. Microorganisms have evolved complex mechanisms to counter the toxic effects of arsenic. Biotechnological techniques exploit several mechanisms which might be evolved to control the arsenic pollution by microorganisms. Thus, there is a high level of interest in developing methods aimed at cleaning up or detoxifying arsenic contaminated sites with the fewest environmental side effects. To protect themselves against the toxic effects of arsenic, microorganisms generally evolved strategies for detoxification and the best among these is the microbial reduction of arsenate to arsenite by means of the ars system, an enzymatic process in which energy is actually consumed to drive the reduction. Arsenic detoxification has been documented in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus xylosis, and is controlled by ars operon consist of three or five genes ars RDABC or ars RBC organized on a single transcription unit. The ars R and ars D are the regulators, where as the ars A and ars B forms the oxyion pumps which efflux out the arsenic. Ars C codes for the arsenate reductase convert the arsenate to arsenite, which is then efflux out by the oxyion pump. In some organisms, resistance involves overproduction of intracellular thiols. In many cases, resistance to arsenic salts is the result of removal of the metalloid from the cytosol, usually by extrusion from the cell. Arsenate poisoning generally results from the transport of this ion by the phosphate transport system thereby competitively inhibiting the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. One phosphate transport system (Pit) takes up both, phosphate and arsenate, at similar rates, whereas the other (Pst, phosphate specific transport) is highly specific for phosphate. Four general mechanism operated in the microbial system involves: Keeping the toxic ion out of the cell (reduced uptake); Highly specific efflux pumping (i.e. removing toxic ions that entered the cell by means of transport systems evolved for nutrient cations or anions), Intra or extra-cellular sequestration by specific mineral-ion binding components (e.g.: metallothioneins) and/or segregation into complex compounds; Enzymatic detoxification (oxydoreductions) that converts a more toxic ion to a less toxic one. The present review paper summarizes the work done in this area and provides the reader better understanding of the roles of microorganisms in cycling of arsenic which may lead to improved processes for Bioremediation of contaminated sites. 

Key words: Arsenic toxicity, Microbial system, Resistance mechanism


19. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 381-388 (2005)

THE BASIS OF HOX GENE INVOLVEMENT IN AUTISM

PARVATHI, J.R., GHOSH, S., GANGOPADHYAY, P.K. AND USHA, R.

Manovikas Biomedical Research and Diagnostic Centre, 482 Madudah, Plot I-24, Sector-J, EM Bypass,
Kolkata 700 107 India. E mail: ushamvk@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Autism is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with marked social deficits, regression or delay of verbal as well as nonverbal communicative skills in addition to a range of stereotypic and restrictive behavior and interests. The evidences from family and twin studies suggest that it is the most heritable neurodevelopmental disorder having involvement of more than fifteen genes that are epistatic, with some contribution of non-genetic factors. During the past decade, tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of autism. Brain stem malformation is suggested to be one of the causative factors of autism and thalidomide embryopathy provides strong evidence in favor of this hypothesis. Neuronal architecture of autistic brain and its similarity with loss of function mutant mice of HoxA1 or HoxB1 provide insight into the participation of these two paralogous genes in the aetiology of autism. The genetic basis of autism is reviewed with emphasis on Hox genes as one of the candidate genes for autism in view of a strong correlation of hindbrain abnormality with Hox gene expression.

Key words: Autism, Neurodevelopment, Brain stem, HoxA1, HoxB1


20. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 389-398 (2005)

OMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS REGULATION OF LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE HOMEOSTASIS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN RAT AND PIGEON: A REVIEW

PILO, B. AND OOMMEN, S.

Division of Neuroendocrinology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao
University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 India. E-mail: bonnypilo@satyam.net.in

Abstract: In this review, a comparison was made between the effects of vagotomy and cisplatin treatment on the liver and kidney of rat and pigeon. The studies of the vagal ablation and cisplatin treatment have shown some similarities with respect to glucose homoeostasis. Transaction of vagal fibres can cause hyperglycaemia. A persistent hyperglycaemia was noticed in both vagotomized and CDDP treated rats and pigeons after glucose administration. Parasympathetic system is known to bring about reduction in glucose level in blood, through its action on glucose uptake by the liver as well as on the release of insulin from pancreas. Parasympathetic dysfunction through vagotomy as well as through cisplatin treatment (chemical parasympathectomy) also produced an increase in sympathetic tone. Sympathetic system has opposing or counter regulating actions. Liver, pancreas and kidney are also innervated by sympathetic nerves just as parasympathetic nerves. Chemical sympathectomy through 6- hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) produced an increased vagal tone. The review, presents the highlights of several studies carried out on the role of autonomic nervous system in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through modulating the metabolic responses of tissues such as liver and kidney.

Key words: Vagotomy, Cisplatin treatment, Hyperglycaemia, 6-Hydroxydopamine


21. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 5 (1) 399-407 (2005)

STUDIES ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND ITS FUNCTIONAL CORRELATION WITH HEPATIC CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AND BLOOD SUGAR REGULATION IN RATS: A REVIEW

PILO, B.  AND PARIKH, R.

Division of Neuroendocrinology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 India. E-mail: bonnypilo@satyam.net.in

Abstract: The autonomous nervous system is involved in the regulation of metabolic reactions in tissues such as liver through direct action of neurotransmitters that the nerve fibres release at the endings as well as through the release of endocrine secretions. The blood sugar regulation is a classical example of the integrative actions of autonomous nervous system. Neuropathy of autonomous nerve fibres has been shown to cause derailment of regulatory processes leading to hyper- or hypo-glycaemia. To understand the degree of involvement of autonomic nervous system in controlling the glycaemia surgical and chemical parasympathectomy were performed in rats. Chemical parasympathectomy was performed by the administration of cisplatin which is known to cause selective autonomic neuropathy. Both the treatments were found to cause hyperglycaemia, increased glucagon secretion, decreased insulin secretion and decreased thyroxine release. In the liver the carbohydrate metabolism has been altered due to parasympathetic dysfunction. Decreased glycogen concentration, decreased glycogen synthetase activity, increased glycogenolysis and increased gluconeogenesis were observed in the liver. It has been concluded that autonomic dysfunction can be a major cause of diabetes mellitus

Key words: Hypothalamus, Hyperglyacaemia, Vagotomy, Gluconeogenesis, Thyroxine, Glucagon,Insulin, Glycogenolysis


 
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