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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
ELECTROMORPHIC ASSOCIATION OF ALPHA-1-ANTITRYPSIN WITH ARTHRITIDES AND ALTERATION OF IMMUNOMODULATORY RESPONSE

1. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 409-412 (2005)

ELECTROMORPHIC ASSOCIATION OF ALPHA-1-ANTITRYPSIN WITH ARTHRITIDES AND ALTERATION OF IMMUNOMODULATORY RESPONSE

PADMINI, A., BABU, R.P., BABU, P.P. AND PRATIBHA, N.

Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007 . E-mail: prathinallari@yahoo.com

Abstract: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) plays a central role as a protease inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, collagenase, elastase in controlling synovium and cartilage degradation and appears to be involved in regulation of the immune system, perhaps through the production of proteases by ‘T’ cells. Deficiency of AAT may contribute to diseases with the involvement of an immune component of the synovium/synovial fluid. The present study aims at evaluating the role of AAT and its specific polymorphic variation with arthritides, which is an inflammatory bone disorder. AAT serum samples were carried out on PAGE in 150 Rheumatoid arthritis, 100 osteoarthritis and 125 adult control subjects. AAT phenotype distribution revealed an association of   PiS, PiF and PiZ alleles with inflammatory condition. An increased frequency of Pi FM phenotype in the disease condition could lead to an increased sensitivity of the ‘F’ variant to oxidation. Further, the S & Z alleles when present may contribute to the decreased enzyme activity of AAT, which in turn may influence the molar complex formation with proteolytic enzymes in cartilage degradation process.

Key words: Arthritides, Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Immunomodulation


2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 413-416 (2005)

CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS AND SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE FREQUENCIES IN HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES AFTER IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDE ENDOSULFAN (ENDOCEL)

GADHIA, P.K., NANAVATI, J., PITHAWALA, M. AND VANIAWALA, S.

Department of Biosciences, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat  395 007 India. 1Shree Nath Laboratory, President Plaza, Ring Road, Surat 395 007 India. E-mail: pankaj_gadhia@hotmail.com

Abstract: Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from 12 healthy non-smoker individuals having mean age range  24- 32 years were exposed in vitro to two different concentrations 35µg/ml and 70µg/ml of commercial formulation of endosulfan, ‘Endocel’ (Excel Industries Ltd., India). Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies have been used as cytogenetic endpoints. There was significant increase in the number of aberrant cells after exposure to doses, 35 µg/ml (P<0.001) and 70 µg/ml (P<0.0001) of endocel. Chromosome as well as chromatid type of aberrations increased in dose dependent manner. Relatively high frequency of abnormal metaphases (that included prematurely condensed chromosomes, pulverization and endoreduplication) were observed after exposure to endocel. On the other hand, SCE frequencies decreased significantly (P<0.05) after exposure to endocel at both concentrations. The results provide information about the clastogenic potential of the pesticide’s in vitro treatment, therefore, could play role in assessing possible genotoxic risk for humans.

Key words: Endosulfan, Lymphocytes, Chromosomal aberrations


 3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 417-420 (2005)

EFFECTS OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN A LOW FAT CEREAL LEGUME DIET ON PLATELET MEMBRANE COMPOSITION AND FUNCTION

CHATTERJEE, B. AND TELANG, S.D.

Institute of Ayurved Pharmceutical Sciences, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar 361 008. E-mail: bijoyalahiri@indiatimes.com

Abstract: The present study investigates the beneficial effects of varying proportions of essential fatty acids with low fat intake on platelet membrane composition and function in rats. Rats were fed with 3% of safflower oil (n-6 -3=30), groundnut oil (n-6 -3=19) or linseed oil (n-6 -3=1), in a cereal-legume based diet (total fat content, 5.5%) for a period of six months. Serum lipid profile, platelet membrane fatty acid composition and platelet aggregation of these animals were studied. A significant decrease in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol was seen in linseed group as compared to the rest of the animals. Decrease in total cholesterol was due to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density cholesterol. A peak of eicosapentanoic acid (20:5, n-3 series) appeared only in platelet membrane fatty acids of linseed group. The proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, n-3 series) was partially compensated by higher levels of n-6 fatty acids in the remaining groups. With collagen, a significantly lower percentage of aggregation was seen in linseed oil group while the slowest rate was recorded with both collagen and adenosine diphosphate. Thus a long-term feeding of a high proportion of linolenic acid (18:3, n-3 series) even in a low fat, cereal-legume based diet seems to show its beneficial effects.

Key words: Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Low fat cereal legume diet, Platelet membrane

4. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 421-424 (2005)

ALTERATIONS OF SERUM PARAMETERS DURING NON-REPRODUCTION PERIOD BY 5-HTP AND L-DOPA ADMINISTRATION IN SPOTTED MUNIA (LONCHURA PUNCTULATA)

PRASAD, S.K. AND THAKUR, S.K.
 
School of Studies in Zoology, Vikram University, Ujjain 456 010 India. Email: drskprasad@sancharnet.in

Abstract: Circadian changes in the phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations has been suggested to determine seasonal metabolic/physiological conditions in some avian species. Daily injections of L-DOPA (L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a dopamine precursor) given 12 h after 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan, a serotonin precursor) is reported to alter seasonality and maintain breeding conditions out of the season. Present study was designed to test whether the injections of these two neurotransmitter to adult female Spotted Munia (Lonchura punctulata), during non-breeding phase, can influence the serum parameters leading to alter the reproductive cycle? Results indicate that the drugs significantly increase the inorganic phosphorus, calcium, total protein, glucose and cholesterol levels in comparison to control. The serum albumin and globulin levels were also raised, hence A/G ratio revealed less value. It is suggested that by altering the serum parameters, 5-HTP and L-DOPA affect the synthesis of female gonadal hormone ‘estrogen’ leading to influence the reproductive cycle.

Key words: 5-HTP, L-DOPA, Unseasonal reproduction, Lonchura punctulata

5. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 425-430 (2005)

RESTORATION  OF  METHYLMERCURY  ALTERED NEUROTRANSMITTERS WITH  NATURAL  ANTIOXDENTS: A POST THERAPEUTIC STUDY

SOOD, P.P., VIJYALAKSHMI, K. AND CHUNDAWAT, R.S. 

Laboratory of Neurobiology and Toxicology, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University,
Rajkot 360 005 India. E-mail: ppsood@yahoo.com

Abstract: The aim of the study is to check the efficacies of naturally occurring antioxidants (glutathione and vitamins) in the restoration of neurotransmitters (dopamine, 5-HT, epinephrine,  norepinephrine and acetylcholine) altered during methylmercury intoxication. Along with these, N-acetyl-DL-homocysteine thiolactone (which provides cysteine) and B vitamins (which protect the cell by various ways) are also screened for their therapeutic capacities either alone or in combinations. The chelators (used as post-therapy agents) are found to be quite successful as all the foresaid neurotransmitters are recovered to control level with one or the other chelating agents.

Key words: Methylmercury, Neurotransmitters, Therapeutic study


6. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 431-434 (2005)

CALLUS CULTURES FROM MOMORDICA DIOICA (Roxb.)

BHOSLE, D.S. AND PARATKAR, G.T.

Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany,  KET’s V. G. Vaze College of Arts, Science & Commerce,Mithagar Road, Mulund (E), Mumbai  400 081 India. E-mail: gparatkar@hotmail.com 

Abstract: Callus cultures were established from leaf, cotyledon and root explants of Momordica dioica (Roxb.). MS basal medium containing different combinations of BA-NAA and various concentrations of 2,4-D were used for callus induction. Fresh friable callus was obtained after 20-25 days. MS basal medium fortified with 8.88 mM BA and 1.08 mM NAA gave greenish white callus from cut ends of leaf explants. The cotyledons separated from decoated seed induced friable greenish callus on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 mM BA and 1.08 mM NAA. For the maintenance and proliferation of the leaf and cotyledon callus, MS medium supplemented with 8.88 mM BA and 1.08 mM NAA, was required. The root explant gave greenish yellow callus on MS basal medium with 13.32 mM BA and 2.7 mM NAA. The media supplemented with 2% of ascorbic acid proved to be significant for maintenance and proliferation of the root callus.

Key words: Callus cultures, Leaf, Cotyledon, Root, Momordica dioica.


7. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 435-438 (2005)

IN VITRO REGENERATION OF CENTELLA ASIATICA, LINN.

AREKAR, A.R. AND BARVE, S.S.

Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, KET’s V. G. Vaze College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Mithagar Road, Mulund (E), Mumbai 400 081 India. E-mail: ash_arekar@reddif.com; ssbarve@scientist.com

Abstract: A standard protocol for in vitro regeneration of Centella asiatica L. was established. Callus initiation was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyl amino purine (BA). Callus initiation was obtained within 18-22 days using MS medium supplemented with combination of 4.44mM BA-0.54mM NAA. MS medium supplemented with 0.88mM BA also shows callus initiation.  MS in combination with 8.88mM BA and 1.08 mM NAA gives profuse callus within 15-20 days. The callus shows rapid growth after two sub cultures. Multiple shoot initiation was obtained from callus of Centella asiatica on MS medium supplemented with 2.2 mM BA. The obtained shoot cultures were maintained and proliferated on MS liquid medium supplemented with 0.44mM BA. The decrease in the strength of the basal salts to half strength in the culture medium shows profuse rooting to the shoots. The regenerated plantlets were successfully hardened in soil: sand (1:1).

Key words:  Callus culture, Centella asiatica L.


8. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 439-444 (2005)

EXTRACELLULAR ALKALINE PROTEASE PRODUCTION BY A  HALOALKALIPHILIC BACTERIA

JOGI, C., JOSHI, R.H., DODIA, M.S.  AND SINGH, S.P.
 
Laboratory of Marine Microbiology, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360005 India. E-mail: satyapsingh@yahoo.com

Abstract: Production and thermostability of extracellular alkaline proteases was studied from haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from seawater along the coastal Gujarat (Western India). Isolated haloalkaliphilic bacteria were judged as Gram-negative cocci. Seven haloalkalophilic bacteria were isolated and abbreviated as PO 1 to PO 7. All isolates secreted the enzyme, but the maximum secretion was noticed in PO 5, hence detail study was conducted with this isolate. The study showed that growth of halophilic bacteria and production of extracellular alkaline proteases was optimum at pH 9 and 15% (w/v) NaCl. Glucose (1%, w/v) and yeast extract (1%, w/v) along with peptone was found to be most effective carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. Among the various carbon sources employed, 1% (w/v) xylose resulted in maximum enzyme production. Production of alkaline protease was optimized as regard to MgCl2, CaCl2 and K2HPO4. The enzyme was not thermally stable beyond 37°C and rapid loss of activity occurred at higher temperatures.

Key words: Extracellular alkaline proteases, Haloalkaliphilic bacteria, Costal water

9. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 445-448 (2005)

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN E. COLI  ISOLATED FROM URINE: A 2-YEAR STUDY ON ISOLATES FROM PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN IRAN

EBRAHIMZADEH, M.A., MAHDAVEE, M.R. AND VAHEDI, M.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Sari School of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
E-mail: zadeh20@yahoo.com

Abstract: In Iran, information about bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is very limited.  This study is performed to determine the occurrence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) antibiotic drug resistance in sari/Iran.  E.  coli is the most common etiologic agent in UTI (58.8%). This microorganism has nearly lost susceptibility to ampicillin and tetracycline. The resistance levels to cotrimoxazole (48.1%) and kanamycin (40%) and majority of antibiotics are very higher than that of many of other countries. At present ceftizoxime and ciprofloxacin are the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of patients with invasive illness. Regarding the emergence of microbial resistant to current antibiotic therapy, it is recommended that culture and antibiogram must be performed to choose appropriate antibiotics. In the present investigation the samples were collected from urine of 5112 patients with UTIs that were refereed to 11 diagnostic microbiology laboratories during two-year periods (2002-03). The antibiogram disc agar diffusion technique was used to evaluate the sensitivity of microbial agents to antibiotics.

Key words: Antibiotic resistance, Antimicrobial susceptibility test,  E. coli.


10. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 449-452 (2005)

MULTI-RESISTANCE OF SOME MOST FREQUENTLY ISOLATED BACTERIAL PATHOGENS TO ANTIMICROBIALS IN IRAN

EBRAHIMZADEH, M.A., MAHDAVI, M.R.ANDASADEE, M.
 
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Sari School of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
E-mail: zadeh20@yahoo.com

Abstract: Bacterial resistance to various antimicrobial agents is most common in areas with high usage of antibiotics such as in countries where over the counter availability promotes usage. In Iran, information about bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is very limited, if any. In this study, data on the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns have been collected for a 18-month period at the one regional and two teaching hospitals in Sari. A total of 2190 aerobic cultures were reviewed. The most common bacterial pathogens were E-coli (62.5%), Staphylococcus sp.. (aureus and coagulase-negative) (13.7%), P. aeruginosa (7.6%), Klebsiella (6.9%), Enterobacter sp.. (4.7%), Proteus sp.. (2.4%), Acinetobacter sp.. (1.1%) and Streptococcus sp.. (1.1%). High levels of resistance to co-trimoxazole have be found in E-coli (40%) and Klebsiella sp.. (41%), cephalexin in P. aeruginosa (81.3%), nitrofurantoin in Proteus sp.. (58.45%) and nalidixic acid in S. aureus (52%). Levels of resistance to majority of antibiotics were higher than other countries.

Key words: Antibiotic resistance, Microorganisms, Antimicrobial susceptibility test.


11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 453-456 (2005)

OVER-THE-COUNTER AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINES IN THE TREATMENT OF VULVOVAGINAL SYMPTOMS IN WOMEN REFERRED TO THE GYNECOLOGIC CLINICS

MOUSSAVI, Z. AND BEHROUZI, R. 

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Salman Farsi St., Sari-Iran, E-mail: moussavi_z@yahoo.fr

Abstract: During the present decade, Over-The-Counter (OTC) antifungal products usage has increased in women. Many women use alternative medicines for relief of symptoms and health problems, but the extent of this usage and the costs are still unknown. This  study  was  designed  to  investigate  the  use  of  OTC  antifungal and alternative medicines in women referred  to  gynecologic  clinics  in hospital. It  was  a  descriptive  study  done  in  102  women  referred  to  gynecologic  clinics  in  hospital  and  evaluated  by  recording  data  in  questionnaire, clinical  observations  and  laboratory  investigations.  The mean age of the patients was 28 years. Half of the patients have high school education and (or) higher diploma. The mean term of symptoms in most of the patients was 18 months. Sixty (58.82%) patients were self-treating with OTC antifungal medicines such as clotrimazole (85%) miconazole (5%) and povidone iodine gel (10%). Twenty  two  (21.56%),  had  used  alternative  medicines ,  most  frequently  vinegar  sitz  bath  (40.9%) ,  salt  sitz  bath  or  douches  (%27.2) ,  beta din  sitz  bath  or  douches  (3.2%)  and  savlon  (8%) . About 19.6% of the patients did not use any method of OTC drugs. About  72.5%  patients thought  that  Vulvovaginal  Candidiasis  was  the  cause  of  their  symptoms, while others in (34.3%)  cases diagnosis  at   initial presentation  were  Candidiasis. This  study  has  shown  that  self – treatment  is  common  in  our  society  which  add to  health  care  costs  and was  not  beneficial. This  behavior,  not only would  delay  the  proper  treatment  but  is  a  reason  for  persistent  and  chronic  conditions  of  the  patients.

Key Words: Alternative Medicines, Vulvovaginal, Antifungal drugs


12. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 457-460 (2005)

EFFECTS OF TEBUCONAZOLE ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION OF MALE RAT

JOSHI, S.C. AND GULATI, N.

Reproductive Toxicology Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004 India.
E-mail: s_c_joshi2003@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The toxic chemicals have become an integral part of the ecosystem. The effects of these agents on human health are yet to be satisfactorily defined.  Tebuconazole (a fungicide) is commonly used to protect garlic, peaches, wheat, barley, oats, maize, peanuts, vegetable, tea and fruit tree. However, its concentration in environment is becoming injurious due to its carcinogenic nature. The aim of this study is to screen the toxic effect of the fungicide on reproductive functions.  Male albino rats (Wistar strain) were orally administered with daily dose (175 mg/kg) of tebuconazole for 30 days. Sex organ weight analysis, fertility, biochemical and enzymatic parameters and testosterone level were the criteria used to evaluate the toxicity of the fungicide in treated rats.  Study shows significant decrease in the weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and reduction in sperm counts both in epididymis and testis in toxicated animals.  Pre- and post-fertility test showed 80% negative results after treatment.  A significant reduction in the testicular glycogen and sialic acid was also observed. Contrary to these, protein and cholesterol contents of testis were significantly increased.  In addition, acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased, while alkaline phosphatase and testosterone levels were declined. 

Key words :  Tebuconazole, Testis, Sperm dynamics, Testosterone


13. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 461-464 (2005)

AntiDIABETIC and antihyperlipAEMIC EFFECTS of ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus niruri  L. leaves

BAVARVA, J.H. AND NARASIMHACHARYA, A.V.R.L.

Department of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120 India. E-mail: narasimhacharya@yahoo.com

Abstract: Glucose and lipid lowering potential of ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus niruri L. leaves was investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Four weeks of oral administration of the extract (250 mg/kg b.w. /day) to diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P<0.001) decrease in blood glucose, total lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared to control rats. A similar trend in hepatic lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides and glycogen content was registered in extract administered diabetic animals. These results suggest that Phyllanthus niruri possesses both antidiabetic and antihyperlipaemic activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Key words: Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipaemic, Phyllanthus  niruri.


14. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 465-469 (2005)

hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of Sesamum indicum Linn. IN HYPERCHOLESTERAEMIC rats

NISHANT, P.V. AND NARASIMHACHARYA, A.V.R.L.

Department of Biosciences, Saradar Patel University, University Road, Vallabhvidyanagar 388 120 India.
E-mail: narasimhacharya@yahoo.com

Abstract: Effect of feeding Sesamum indicum seed powder in hyperchloesteraemic rats on the lipids and lipid peroxidation was investigated. Feeding Sesamum seed powder as a feed supplement (5gm% and 10 gm% levels) to hypercholesteraemic animals significantly decreased plasma and liver lipid profiles and, increased plasma HDL-cholesterol and hepatic bile acid production. The feed supplementation with both doses also increased the fecal excretion of bile acid and cholesterol significantly.  The hepatic lipid peroxidation decreased with a significant increase in the activity of catalase and, moderate increases in SOD and total ascorbic acid levels in the treated groups. Thus Sesamum seed powder as a feed supplement, appeared to exert a beneficial effect on hypercholesteraemic condition by decreasing the lipid profiles in plasma and liver (total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-cholesterol and, atherogenic index) enhancing the conversion of endogenous cholesterol into bile acid and, decreasing the lipid peroxidation.

Key words: Sesamum Indicum, Hyperlipidaemia, Hypercholesteraemia


15. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 471-474 (2005)

MODULATION OF RADIATION-INDUCED LESIONS IN TESTES OF SWISS ALBINO MICE BY VITAMIN E

PAREEK, T.K., RIMPU, K., DEV, P.K. AND GOYAL, P.K.

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004 India.
Email: pkgoyal2002@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The sensitivity of testes to radiation was investigated in adult male Swiss albino mice after whole-body exposure of 1.6 and 4.8 Gy of gamma radiation from a 60Co source with (Experimental) or without (Control) vitamin E. The drug was administered for 7 consecutive days orally once in a day (25 mg/kg b.wt/day). Animals were autopsied at 6 hrs., 12 hrs., 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 days after irradiation and testis-body weight  ratio, tubular diameter and spermatogenic cells were measured in both the groups and a  significant decrease was observed in all parameters. Testis-body weight ratio declined considerably till day 1 in case of 1.6 Gy and day 5 in case of 4.8 Gy, central and peripheral tubular diameter decreased considerably till day 10 in both the cases, spermatogonia and spermatocytes declined upto day 5, whereas spermatids remained decreasing till the last interval. In all above cases, there were increase in measures and counts with the advent of time but they could not reach to their normal levels. The counts of testicular elements were found to be higher in experimental group (vitamin E pretreated irradiated) at various intervals than their respective controls, reaching towards normal by the end of experimentation in lower dose of radiation. These observations indicate the protective potential of vitamin E in testes against irradiation in mice.

Key words: Radioprotection, Vitamin E, Testes, Mice


16. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 475-478 (2005)

EFFECT OF HISTAMINERGIC DRUGS ON MELANOPHORES OF  FISH SCALES: AN  IN VITRO STUDY

ACHARYA, L.S.K. AND OVAIS,  M.

Department of Biosciences, Barkatullah Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal 462 026 India E-mail: drovais@yahoo.co.in

 Abstract: Effects of histamine, 2-methylhistamine and 4-methylhistamine were examined on the isolated scale melanophores of fish Tor khudree (Sykes) in physiological salt solution. Melanophore Size Index (MSI) was adopted as the parameter for evaluation of the fish melanophore responses. Histamine induced a mild dispersion in a low dose-range, while at higher dose it showed consistent aggregation in the fish melanophores.  Both dermal and epidermal melanophores responded in a similar manner. Phentolamine (3.55 x 10-5 M), mepyramine  (2.49 x 10-5 M) and ranitidine  (2.849 x 10-5 M) all significantly inhibited the aggregatory responses of the fish melanophores to histamine, which indicates the presence of histamine H1 and H2 receptors. The specific histamine H1 and H2 receptor agonists,  2-methylhistamine and 4-methylhistamine, were also employed. Both the specific agonists consistently aggregated the melanophores in concentratratiuon-related manner. It is concluded from the study that histamine induced dispersal as well as aggregatory responses are mediated through direct as well as indirect mechanisms and both the H1 and H2 receptors may be present.

Key words: Fish, Melanophores, Histamine, 2-Methylhistamine, 4-Methylhistamine


17. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 479-482 (2005)

OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY

Ushasree, B., Annapurna, S.D., Jain, R.K. and Pratibha. N.

Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007 India.  E-mail: prathinallari @ yahoo.com.

Abstract: Cardiomyopathy represents a diverse group of heart muscle disorders, which are further classified on the basis of their anatomic and hemodynamic findings. Hearts with increased antioxidant capacity have been reported to be more resistant to in vivo and in vitro oxidative stress. On the other hand, cardiomyopathy with heart failure is accompanied by increased free radicals and lipid peroxidation and a relative deficit in ‘antioxidant reserve’ may contribute to the decompensated state.The aim of this study was to assess the status of oxidative stress by a study on level variation of pro-oxidant malonaldehyde (MDA) and antioxidant ceruloplasmin (Cp) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy of ischemic and idiopathic etiology. 76 dilated cardiomyopathy patients (52 men and 24 women, ages 2 years to 65 years) of which 42 are of idiopathic (primary cases) and 34 are of ischemic etiology (secondary cases), and 100 healthy volunteers matched for age and sex were considered for the level variation of MDA and Cp. A significant increase in the patient group compared to controls (P<0.01, 0.05), was observed in both pro-oxidant malonaldehyde  and antioxidant ceruloplasmin levels, which can be correlated to membrane susceptibility to peroxidation as well as increased free radical generation  in patients. We conclude that in patients with idiopathic or ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, increased antioxidant levels may be in response to the increased peroxidation. Thereby, protecting the heart muscle from further degradation/tissue injury and conferring resistance to free radical generation in such patients.

Key words: Dilated cardiomyopathy, Oxidative stress, Malonaldehyde, Ceruloplasmin


18. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 483-486 (2005)

Regenerative Medicine for Degenerative Diseases

BHONDE, R.R. AND MISHRA, G.C.

National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Ganeshkhind Pune 411 007 India.
E-mail: rrbhonde@nccs.res.in

Abstract: In recent years regenerative biology has reached to greater heights due to its therapeutic potential in treating degenerative diseases; as they are not curable by modern medicine. With the advent of research in stem cells and developmental biology the regenerative potential of adult resident stem cells is becoming clearer. The long term objective of regenerative medicine or cell therapy is to treat patients with their own stem cells. These stem cells could be derived from the diseased organs such as skin, liver, pancreas etc. or from reservoirs of multipotent stem cells such as bone marrow or cord blood. The existence of the stem cells in most organs including brain has been established. Harnessing the potential of these resident ‘in-house’ stem cells is highly attractive as it has bearing in autologous cell therapy to cure many diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease etc. The present article focuses on the importance of regenerative medicine in neuronal and cardiac disorders and diabetes highlighting the latest developments in the field.

Key words: Stem cell therapy, Degenerative diseases


19. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 487-496 (2005)
DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER: FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATION IN NEUROBEHAVIORAL DISORDERS

DAS, M. AND MUKHOPADHYAY, K.

Manovikas Biomedical Research and Diagnostic Centre, 482  Madudah, Plot I-24, Sector-J, EM Bypass,
Kolkata 700107 India. E-mail: kanchanmvk@yahoo.com

Abstract:Dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a major role in the dopaminergic pathway as it controls the lifetime extracellular supply of dopamine by dynamically reuptaking dopamine from the synapse into the presynaptic neurons. Investigations into the cellular and molecular biology of DAT has revealed an alteration in the level of the transporter in many neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, alcoholism, bipolar disorder etc and therefore, DAT is an important target for a variety of therapeutic agents.  In recent times, brain imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography have enabled us to determine DAT density in vivo, while the cloning of DAT and other related neurotransmitter transporters has augmented our knowledge about this significant gene family. The pharmacological importance of DAT is being reviewed in respect to its structure-function correlation and involvement with neurobehavioral disorders.

Key words: DAT, Neurotransmitter, Dopamine, Neuropsychiatry


20. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 497-505 (2005)

ROLE OF REELIN IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CEREBRAL CORTEX

DUTTA, S., GHOSH, S., GANGOPADHYAY, P.K. AND USHA, R.

Manovikas Biomedical Research and Diagnostic Centre, 482 Madudah, Sector-J, EM Bypass, Kolkata 700 107.
E mail: ushamvk@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: During brain development, the ordered structures are generated as a result of well-defined neuronal migration and lamination. Reelin, an extracellular matrix protein secreted by the early generated Cajal-Retzius neurons plays a central role to regulate these events. In reeler mouse, a natural neurological phenotype with reeling gait, the abnormal cortical lamination pattern has been generated as a result of mutational inactivation of reelin. The role of reelin in corticogenesis has thus become imperative in understanding the molecular basis of brain development. It binds to specific transmembrane receptors, which trigger signal transduction cascade that leads to neuronal positioning in specific destinations. Different molecules have been identified that synergistically act with reelin to execute these signaling events. Migrational defects during corticogenesis cause defective cytoarchitectonic pattern of the forebrain which may lead to severe developmental disorders. This paper reviews the role of reelin in this signaling pathway leading to ordered neuronal alignment during corticogenesis.

Key words: Cerebral cortex,  Reelin, Neurodevelopmental disorder.


21. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 507-512 (2005)

HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPE 1 (HIV-1) NEUROPATHOGENESIS IN IN VITRO MODELS

MUKHTAR, M.

The Dorrance H. Hamilton Laboratories, Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107. E-mail:muhammad.mukhtar@jefferson.edu

Abstract: HIV-1 enters into the brain soon after seroconversion; however the mechanism of viral entry into the brain is elusive. This viral entry is supposed to be mediated by transmigration of HIV-1 infected cells (monocytes/macrophages, leukocytes) or direct infection of blood-brain barrier (BBB) forming cells. Recently, our studies on HIV-1 neuropathogenesis reveal that primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs), a major constituent of the human BBB express a variety of chemokine receptors; however, none of them is involved in viral entry/infection. To better understand neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 our laboratory has developed an in vitro BBB which is totally comprised of primary human brain MVECs and astrocytes. This model is being used to study and completely understand viral entry into the brain as well neuroprotective strategies for HIV-1-associated dementia. This article discusses our ongoing work in this area of research.

Key words: Human immunodeficiency virus, Neuropathogenesis


22. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 513-514 (2005)

EFFICACY OF C-PHYCOCYANIN AGAINST CHROMIUM(VI) TOXICITY INDUCED LIPID PEROXIDATION

SUDIPTA MISRA, R.S. CHUNDAWAT, P.P. SOOD  AND SANDHYA  MISHRA

Laboratory of Neurobiology and Toxicology, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360005 India. E-mail: ppsood@yahoo.com.

Abstract: Considering as an index of lipid peroxidation,  malondialdehyde (MDA) fluctuation has been investigated in Cr(VI) intoxicated and C-phycocyanin post treated developing chicks. Study shows a significant  metal deposition in brain, liver, kidney, muscles and serum during intoxication. C-phycocyanin (isolated and purified from cyanobacterial species) application accelerates the metal elimination and simultaneously decreases MDA from all the tissues and serum, indicating that this herbal product is capable to reduce lipid peroxidation.

Key words:  C-phycocyanin; Chromium (VI); Lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde


 23. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol.  5 (2) 515-517 (2005)

Prevalance of low bone mass in local community of Anand and VallabhVidyanagar (Gujarat)

Jadeja, G.R. AND rema, S.

P.G. Department of Home Science, Sardar Patel University, Vallabhvidyanagar 388 120 India.
E-mail: jadejagayatree@yahoo.com

Abstract: Osteoporosis is a major problem of health care delivery services, both in the developed and developing countries. The first normative reference database of bone mineral density in the women was established using digital x-ray radiogrammetry. Further analysis of this database revealed that as the age increase there is low bone mass. About 40% women over 50 years of age were noted to have low bone mass. The observations of this study suggest that there is higher prevalence of low bone mass in the local community of Anand and Vallabhvidyanagar compared to the western population.

Key words: Osteoporosis, Bone mass, Prevalence, Digital x-ray radiogrammetry.


 
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