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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
Production of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis using rice bran

1. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1347-1350 (2008)

Production of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis using rice bran

Rao, R.S.,  Deshmukh, Y.D., Borkar, P.S.  and  Khobragade, C.N.

School of Life Sciences, Swami Raman and Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, 431 606, India. E. mail: cnkhobragade@rediffmail.com

Abstract: A protease producing bacteria were isolated from soil and identified as B. subtilis. Of the 42 isolates screened, isolate S-8 was identified as thermostable alkaline protease producer found to grow at pH and temperature ranges  of 5.8  to 8.0 and temperature 50-65 0C respectively. The maximum protease production was found to be at 50 0C and pH 9 with 2% inoculum in the medium containing 1% rice bran after 48 h of incubation. Beef extract, yeast extract, peptone, tryptone were good nitrogen sources, while casein, skim milk and lactose were suitable for enzyme production. The results showed that B. subtilis under study are good producer of extracellular protease at high temperature. The extracellular enzyme production and thermostable nature  might be an indication that protease was useful at high elevated temperature in industrial applications.

Key words: Alkaline protease, B. subtilis, Carbon and nitrogen sources.


2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1351-1354 (2008)

Salinity mediated changes in nitrate and nitrite reductases in Dolichos lablab (L.) Var. Konkan Val- 2 seedlings

Patil, D.A., Patil, A.G., Phatak, A.V.  and Naresh Chandra

Department of Botany,  Birla College, Kalyan  421304, India. E. mail: herbalsciences@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The effect of different salinity levels (0.0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% NaCl) on nitrate  and nitrite reductases in seedlings of Dolichos lablab L. Var. Konkan Val –2 were studied.  Nitrate reductase (NR) activity increased in radicle, plumule, cotyledon and hypocotyl of 5-day-old seedling of Dolichos lablab L. Var. Konkan Val –2 with increase in salinity. However, the salt induced inhibition of NR was observed in leaves of 15 and 30 days old plants. The nitrite reductase activity in plumule of 5-day-old seedling remained low under salt stress condition (0.5% and 1.0% NaCl). In leaf of 15 days and 30 days old plants nitrite reductase activity showed a slight increase up to 0.5% NaCl salinity.

Key words:  Dolichos lablab L., Salinity, Nitrate reductase, Nitrite reductase


3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1355-1360 (2008)

Antimicrobial effects of Cleome viscosa and Trigonella foenum graecum seed extracts

 Upadhyay, R.K., Ahmad, S., Jaiswal, G., Dwivedi,  P.  and Tripathi, R.

Department of Zoology, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009, India. Email: rkupad@yahoo.com

Abstract: In present investigation antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of Cleome viscosa and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds were evaluated against certain pathogenic strains of bacteria i.e. E. coli, B cereus, L. acidophilus and Pneumococcus. Initially the growth inhibitory activity was examined in agar disc and later on in suspension culture followed by biochemical estimations of DNA, RNA and protein in presence and absence of various seed extracts. The growth inhibition was calculated in form of MBC50 (Median effective concentration) and MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) values in presence of each extract. The acetone, chloroform and diethyl ether extracts of Cleome viscosa have shown pronounced growth inhibition as their MBC50 values have been found between i.e. 1.09-1.51µg/ml, 1.13-5.45µg/ml and 1.26-1.69 µg/ml against all the four bacterial strains while that of water extract have been found 1.66-4.10 µg/ml.  In case of Trigonella foenum graecum, acetone and diethyl ether extracts have attributed significant growth inhibitory effects as their MBC50 values obtained were 1.39-2.22 µg/ml, 1.84-2.36 µg/ml while chloroform (3.45-4.62 µg/ml) and water (4.12-5.33 µg/ml) extracts  have shown less growth inhibition in comparison to tetracycline (0.53-2.13 µg/ml). These results are also compared with one positive control of standard antimicrobial drug tetracycline a well-known antibiotic at an equivalent concentration. Based on the above findings it can be concluded that used to plant extracts from both the plants are more potent antimicrobial agents and can successfully check the microbial infection caused by these bacterial strains in comparison to standard antimicrobial drugs.

Key words: Cleome viscosa, Trigonella foenum graecum, Antimicrobial


4. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1361-1365 (2008)

Survival and activities of L. acidophilus and L. sporogenes in fermented dairy products

Joshi Pradnya,  A.  and Joshi Manali, M.

Department of Microbiology, Birla College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Kalyan  421304, India. E. mail: pradnyajoi@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Probiotics are live microbial food supplements, which when consumed in adequate amount, confer health benefits to consumer. Probiotic products available in Indian market are mostly pharmaceutical preparations such as, tablets, capsules and powders. Fermented dairy products can be used as a good source for delivering these probiotic bacteria to the consumers. For this purpose fermented dairy products, ice-cream and curd were evaluated in vitro. Both products were made using cultures L. acidophilus and L. sporogenes isolated from pharmaceutical preparations. Culture viability, bile tolerance, -galactosidase production, cholesterol reduction were the criteria used to evaluate effect of environment on probiotic cultures. Study showed significant increase in viability and bile tolerance for both cultures. -galactosidase activity remained unaffected for all products. Both organisms showed in vitro cholesterol reduction potential. L. sporogenes was found to have equal potential as well known probiotic culture, L. acidophilus. Use of these organisms in dairy products is recommended. Probiotic dairy products are also recommended over probiotic pharmaceutical preparations.

Key words: L. acidophilus, L. sporogenes,  Fermented dairy product


5. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1367-1377 (2008)

Hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen species and pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy

Dave, G. S.  and Kalia, K.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Lab. No. 302A, BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, India. Email-kirankalia_in@yahoo.com

Abstract: Reactive oxygen species plays a significant role as regulatory mediators in various signaling processes in normal physiology. Imbalance in redox status of the cells leads to generation of oxidative stress and is responsible for disturbance in normal cellular processes. Uncontrolled elevated circulatory sugar level in diabetes mellitus (Type-1 and Type-2) is strongly associated with increased oxidative stress and diabetes related secondary complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and myocardial infarction. Oxidative insult in diabetes reflects the uneven regulated web of antioxidative system and several other mechanisms of generation of free radicals. Various well defined molecular mechanisms have been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced vascular damage, which seems to reflect a single glucose-mediated process of overproduction of free radicals by electron transport chain. The focus of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of generation of free radicals and their effect on development of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy as well as the direction to further investigations in the field of physiology and pharmacology.

Key words: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress


6. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1379-1381 (2008)

Prevalence distribution of resistance to systemic glucantime (meglumine antimony) in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis

Nilfroushzadeh, M. A., Ansari, N., Derakhshan, R. and Siadat, A. H.

Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Medical Sciences  University of Tehran, Iran

Abstract: A number of  therapeutic agents have been suggested for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), however, there is no definite treatment for it. The most common therapies mediators are  the pentavalent antimony compounds (glucantime and pentostam). Unfortunately, resistance to glucantime has emerged in all parts of the world. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the prevalence of glucantime resistance in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed in 370 patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis. Data regarding demographic characteristics of the patients were collected and then patients were treated with intramuscular systemic glucantime, 50mg/kg for maximum of 10cc. The treatment was continued for 3 weeks and the patients were then followed for 3 weeks. The results were then analyzed using SPSS software. At the end of second and third week of treatment, partial cure was observed in 64.1% and 73% of the lesions, respectively. At the end of third week of follow up, 54.9% of the lesions were completely cured. 11.6% of the lesions were not cured at the end of treatment but this value decreased to 8.3% at the end of third week of follow up. Considering the high percentage of partial response and multiple mechanisms responsible for drug resistance, the use of complementary treatment to reduce duration of treatment and finding new drugs for this common infection is recommended.

Key words: Leishmaniasis, Resistance, GLucantime


7. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1383-1386 (2008)

A simple, rapid and efficient method for isolation of genomic DNA from plant tissue

Oza, V.P., Trivedi, S.D.,  Parmar. P.P. and Subramanian, R.B.

B. R. D. School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidhya Nagar 388 120, India
Email: subramanianrb@gmail.com

Abstract: An economical and easy method for isolation of intact, good quality genomic DNA is reported. In this new DNA isolation method polysaccharides and polyphenols, the two most common contaminants of plant genomic DNA, are removed prior to the precipitation of the DNA.  The genomic DNA was then precipitated using isopropanol. This protocol yielded a high molecular weight DNA, free from contamination and colour from fresh leaves of five different plant species. The isolated genomic DNA can be used for PCR amplification and other downstream applications. The main objective of the present protocol is to provide a simple method of genomic DNA isolation from plant tissue without any contamination.

Key words:  DNA Isolation, Plant, New method


8. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1387-1392 (2008)

Evaluation of nutritional quality of various tempeh preparations with Rhizopus oligosporus in rats

Dhaduk, J.J., Patel, B.G., Patel, I.N., and Rema, S.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, ASPEE College of Home Science, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar 385 506, India. E-mail: jj_dhaduk@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Tempehs were prepared from soybean, bengal gram, cowpea and field beans with pure spore culture of Rhizopus oligosporus MTCC 556. Prepared soybean tempeh (ST), bengal gram tempeh (BT), cowpea tempeh (CT), field bean tempeh (FT) and basal diets were evaluated through diet intake, body weight gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed efficiency ratio (FER), fecal loss, blood haemoglobin, liver and serum proteins as well as enzymes profile and organ weights to see any correlation between different proteins in these cultivars and their nutritive value as a source of protein for weanling albino rats (Charles foster strain). Significant differences were observed in the diet intakes, body weight gain, PER, FER, fecal loss, blood haemoglobin, liver protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme, serum protein, albumin, globulin and organ weight, while, A:G ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) enzymes did not differ significantly when unfermented wheat:bengal gram (WB) (80:20) and various tempeh powders were fed. The enzymes ALP, ALT, AST and LDH did not differ significantly within the tempeh groups. BT and ST had better protein quality than that of other tempeh, and the values of most traits for FT group were lowest. BT and ST appeared palatable, digestible, nutritive, safe and quite efficient for growth in rat bioassay.

Key words: Tempeh, Rhizopus oligosporus


9. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1393-1398 (2008)

Physiological and biochemical alterations in Pisum sativum L. following cadmium toxicity and its amelioration by salicylic acid

 Nile, S.H., Shirfule, A.L, Deshmukh, Y.D. and Khobragade, C.N.

School of Life Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, 431 606, India.E-mail: cnkhobragade@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Seeds of Pisum sativum L. varieties Ludhiyana P-3, Arkel and Green pearl were allowed to germinate on different concentrations of cadmium ions. Lower concentration of cadmium (0.01 mM) delays the germination percentage (47, 44 and 28%), while higher concentration (0.025 mM) caused reduction in germination percentage (25.5, 21.3and 23.7 %) respectively. Addition of salicylic acid (0.5 mM) with and without cadmium caused increase in percent germination. Ludhiyana P-3 revealed more tolerance to decrease in root length and shoot length as compared to Arkel and Green pearl and unstressed control. Decrease in mitotic index, percentage of protein, total chlorophyll, ch1-a, ch1-b and â-amylase activity while increase in abnormal cell count, proline, total sugar, phenol and peroxidase activity was observed in stressed varieties with cadmium but the combined action of cadmium and salicylic acid showed increase in all the parameters except total sugar, phenol, proline and peroxides activity, indicating ameliorative effect of added salicylic acid. Ludhiyana P-3 was observed to be a more tolerant variety to cadmium stress as compared to Arkel and Green pearl varieties.

Key words: Cadmium toxicity, Salicylic acid, Pisum sativum


10. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1399-1403 (2008)

Effect of chronic smoking on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in gastric carcinoma patients

Pasupathi, P.,  Saravanan, G.  and Bakthavathsalam, G.
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, K.G. Hospital and Post Graduate Medical Institute, Coimbatore-641 018, India. E. mail: drppasupathi@gmail.com

Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine the effects of chronic cigarette smoking on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in gastric cancer patients. The study population (age-matched male subjects) consisted of 100 gastric cancer patients (nonsmokers n=50 and smokers n=50) and 100 healthy controls (nonsmokers n=50 and smokers n=50). The level of erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was markedly increased in both the carcinoma groups when compared to control groups. Comparatively, the TBARS level was higher in healthy smokers than non-smoking carcinoma patients. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-treansferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E were significantly decreased in gastric cancer patients (smokers) when compared with other groups. There was also notable statistical significance between smoking and nonsmoking carcinoma group patients. The present study highlights the occurrence of lipid peroxidation and possible breakdown of antioxidant status in cigarette smoking, which may subsequently increase the possibility of initiation and progression of gastric cancer.

Key words: Smoking, Gastric cancer, Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidants


11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1405-1410 (2008)

Escalation of circulatory antioxidants by oregano (Origanum  vulgare L.) during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced experimental colon carcinogenesis

Srihari, T., Selvam, J.P., Aranganathan, S., Ramakrishna, D.S. and Nalini, N.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, E. mail: nalininam@yahoo.com

Abstract : We have investigated the modulatory effect of oregano (a medicinal herb) on circulatory lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant status during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in male albino wistar rats. Enhanced LPO in the circulation of tumour bearing animals was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR). Oregano supplementation at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weights has a modulatory role on circulatory LPO and antioxidant profile in colon cancer bearing rats. We report that oregano exerts its chemoprevention effect by decreasing circulatory LPO and enhancing antioxidant levels.  . 

Key words: Colon cancer, Oregano, Chemoprevent

12. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1411-1416 (2008)

Endocrine relation between submandibular gland and testes

Walvekar, M.V. and Pillai, M.M.

Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004. India.. E. mail: madhuri_walvekar@rediffmail.com

Abstract: One month old mice were sublingulectomised (removal of sublingual gland) and maintained under normal conditions in the animal house up to the age of three months. Thereafter, the weight of testes, epididymis and sperm count per epididymis were determined in both sublingulectomised and normal mice. Protein, lipid, DNA content and LDH activity in testis were determined in all the mice. Thin layer chromatography of phospholipids and electrophoretic separation of LDH were also done. The weight of testis and LDH activity were decreased significantly, while the fluctuations of remaining parameters were insignificant. TLC of phospholipids showed that there was not much difference in the quantity of phospholipids in testis of sublingulectomised mice, while electrophoretic separation of LDH demonstrated the absence of LDH-X band in experimental animals.

Key words: Sublingulectomy, Spermatogenesis, Testis


13. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1417-1420 (2008)

Antihyperammonemic effect of Withania somnifera on ammonium chloride induced Wistar rats

Harikrishnan, B., Subramanian, P.  and Subash, S.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, India. E. mail: annamalai_rhythm@yahoo.co.in

Abstract : The present study was undertaken to investigate the antihyperammonemic efficacy of Withania somnifera root, which has been used in Indian traditional medicine for many centuries. We studied the effect of oral administration of powdered root of W. somnifera (500 mg/kg; b.wt) on blood ammonia, plasma urea, uric acid, non-protein nitrogen and serum creatinine in control and ammonium chloride (AC) induced hyperammonemic rats. The levels of circulatory ammonia, urea, uric acid, non-protein nitrogen and creatinine decreased significantly in rats treated with W. somnifera and AC. These studies indicate that powdered root of W. somnifera may offer protection against AC induced hyperammonemia. The antihyperammonemic effect of W. somnifera may be due to (i) the presence of alkaloids, withanolids and flavonoids, (ii) normalizing the levels of urea and urea related compounds, (iii) its free radical scavenging property and (iv) its antioxidant property. The exact underlying mechanism is still unclear and further research needed..

Key words: Ammonium chloride, Withania sominifera


14. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1421-1424 (2008)

Comparison of propolis hydroalcoholic  extract  versus glucantime  in the  treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/C mice

Nilfroushzadeh, M.A., Shirani-Bidabadi, L., Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A., Saberi, S., Siadat, A.H. and Mahmoudi, M.

Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center. Training  for Leprosy  Skin Diseases, Department of Dermatology, Medical Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran.  E. Mail: amirhossein1@yahoo.com

Abstract: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies. Though many therapeutic modalities have been suggested  still no definite treatment for this infection is available. Considering the lack of data about the possible efficacy of these herbs against leishmaniasis, we have decided  to evaluate and compare  the efficacy of extract of  propolis and systemic glucantime  against cutaneous leishmaniasis in Balb/c. In this study, we used inbred, female Balb/c mice, aged 4-6 weeks that were inoculated with 1.6 × 106 viable stationary-phase promastigotes in the base of tail. The mice provided by Iran  Pastur Institute  were randomized into three groups each including 9 mice. Group 1 to 3 were treated with pure ethanol 70 %, systemic glucantime, and propolis hydroalcoholic extract for a 6-weeks period. The statistical tests including student t-test were used for analysis. Overall, 27 mice were evaluated. There was a significant difference regarding reduction of ulcer size between propolis extract and glucantime in favor of propolis extract (P values= 0.008). Our results are suggestive that propolis extract  is effective for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice. Regarding these results, we suggest that efficacy of this extract alone or in combination are evaluated against human cutaneous leishmaniasis as a RCT.

Key words:  Propolis,  Cutaneous leishmaniasis, glucantime


15. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1425-1430 (2008)

Purification and biochemical characterization of curcin toxin  from Jatropha curcas seeds

Kumar, O., Singh, Y., Kothari, V. and Vijayaraghavan, R.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior  474002, India. E. mail: omkumar63@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to find out the percentage of curcin present in the Jatropha seeds and to determine its toxicity.  The Jatropha  plant, a member of  family Euphorbiaceae, has excessively  been exploited for its oil, used as  bio-diesel all over the world.  However, it contains a good concentration of toxin curcin. In present study toxin curcin, which is the major toxic principle present in the seeds, has been isolated and purified. The curcin was extracted from fat free cake and crude curcin was purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purity of curcin was checked by SDS-PAGE. The purity of curcin was further confirmed by western blotting.  The molecular weight was determined and found to be approximately 28 kDa. Antibody against purified curcin was raised. The Antibody titer was 1: 100,000 by Dot ELISA and 1: 16 by Agarose gel immunodiffusion. The LD50 of purified curcin was found to be 1.77 mg/ kg body weight. The percent yield of curcin toxin was approximately 1.4 to 2.0 percent of whole Jatropha seeds.

Key words: Jatropha seeds, Curcin toxin


16. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1431-1435 (2008)

Synthesis and biological evaluation of Schiff bases derived from p-dimehtylaminobenzaldehyde

Jain, J., Masand, N.,  Sinha, R., Garg, V.K. and Patil, V.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Meerut  250 002, India. E mail: neerajmasand@rediffmail.com

Abstract: A series of Schiff bases have been synthesized by condensation of p-Dimehtyl-aminobenzaldehyde with the corresponding aromatic primary amines. Their IR and 1H NMR spectra have been obtained. All the synthesized Schiff bases were evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity by maximal electroshock (MES) test and their neurotoxicity effects were determined by the rotorod neurotoxicity test at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg dose levels at two different time intervals.  Acute toxicity study and CNS depressant activity of these compounds were also screened. Compound 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were found to be active in MES test. Majority of the compounds have shown activity after 0.5 h. Compounds 2 and 6 showed activity after 4 h. The compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6 showed neurotoxicity at 300 mg/kg (i.p.). All tested compounds have shown CNS depressant effect of varying degrees at the dose of 1/5th of LD50.

Key words: Schiff bases, p-Dimehtylaminobenzaldehyde


17. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1437-1442 (2008)

Oxidative stress, CD4+ cell count and antioxidant status in HIV/AIDS patients

Pasupathi, P.,  Bakthavathsalam, G., Saravanan, G., Chinnaswamy, P. and Devaraj, A.

Institute of Laboratory Medicine, K. G. Hospital and Post Graduate Medical Institute, Coimbatore 641 018, E. mail: drppasupathi@gmail.com

Abstract: Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes persistent chronic inflammation. Severe oxidative stress has been reported in HIV/AIDS patients because of malnutrition and poor immunity, the hallmark of HIV infection is cellular CD4+ immunodeficiency.  The aim of this study was to investigate the lipid peroxidation products and CD4+ cell count,  non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant status in HIV infected patients and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The study population consisted of 150 subjects divided into three-groups [HIV positive patients 50 cases  (HIV n=50), AIDS patients 50 cases (AIDS n=50) and an equal number of age- and sex-matched control subjects (C n=50).  The level of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was markedly more in the AIDS patients when compared to HIV positive patients and control groups. The low CD4+ cell counts in AIDS patients  (< 150/mm3) when compare to the HIV positive patients ( < 375 /mm3) and control subjects (> 750/mm3) was statistically significant. Further  the CD4 count  decreased due to progression of the disease. Significantly low   levels of plasma vitamin A (β-carotene), vitamin C, and α-tocopherol were observed in AIDS patients when compared with HIV positive patients and control subjects. The activities of superoxidedismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-treansferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were significantly low in AIDS patients when compared with HIV positive patients and normal subjects. The study showed that in AIDS patient’s free radical activity is quite very high and antioxidant levels are low. The present study highlights the occurrence of lipid peroxidation and possible breakdown of antioxidant status in HIV/AIDS patients, which may subsequently increase the possibility of poor immunity. The antioxidant status was progressively depleted in HIV infected persons as the disease progressed from a symptomatic state to AIDS.

Key words: HIV, AIDS, Lipid peroxidation, CD4+ cell count, Antioxidant status


18. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1443-1448 (2008)

Histopathological alterations in rat liver on exposure to textile environment

Sanandam, M.R.

Department of Biotechnology Engineering, KIT’S College, Kolhapur-416234., India
E-mail: monicasands@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Occupational health hazards among people exposed to different organic and inorganic dusts have been known for many centuries. Industrialization resulted in a different kind of microenvironment with high dust, particulate matter concentration with microbial contamination, noise, vibrations heat etc. and other stressful work place situations. Literature reports indicate that Organic dust exposures cause severe diseases in various industrial and agricultural workers. It has been well established that exposure to cotton,hemp or flax also results in chest tightness, mill fever and byssinosis. Cotton textile industry constitutes the single largest industry employing lacs of workers, but the powerloom sector of this industry is operating with neglected working conditions and welfare facilities without any research or innovation of any kind. The experimental animal rat exposed to this working environment was found to show significant behavioural changes and the hypoxic states. The present study indicated structural and functional alterations in rat liver like enlarged liver, histologic picture showed focal hypoxic necrosis, areas of regenerating hepatocytes, eosinophilic cytoplasmic changes, ground glass cytoplasm, multinucleated giant cells, hemosiderosis, increased number of kuffer cells and phagocytes, the central vein, bile ducts, hepatic arteries and sinusoids accumulated with non-homogenous fluid. Tissue proteins were decreased. Liver function tests showed significant alterations in bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phospatase enzymes, total serum proteins, albumin, globulins and A/G ratio. The total LDH estimated also showed significant alteration. The histopathologic observations and altered liver function tests indicated that hepatic tissue injury was caused by cotton dust and associated endotoxins and other working environmental stresses in textile environment, which act synergistically to produce toxic stress.

Key words: Liver, Histopathology, Textile environment, Endotoxins


19. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1449-1454 (2008)

Effect of Bacopa monniera  on  acid phosphatase activity of the prostate gland of  D-galactose induced aging mice (Mus musculus)

Kalamade, V. I.   Pillai, M. M. and Kalamade, I. S.

Department of Zoology, Shivaji University,  Karad, India.. E-mail:  vahidakalamade@yahoo.com. 

Abstract: Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a glycoprotein synthesized in the epithelial cells of prostate gland.  There are two forms of PAP in well differentiated prostate epithelial cells, one is cellular form (cPAP), remaining intracellular and the other is secretory form (sPAP).  These two forms have different isoelectric point values and exhibit differences in biochemical properties. PAP is the marker enzyme used for diagnosis of prostate cancer that most frequently occurs in aging prostate.  During aging there is disturbance in the balance between oxidants and antioxidants system, hence there is increase in free radical formation.  The unscavenged free radicals or their uncontrolled production exert cytotoxic effect on the cells and are considered to be the mediators of the etiology of pathological condition.  Intake of antioxidants through vegetables and fruits lower the risk of old age disorders.  Extracts of many plants also contain antioxidants useful to scavenge the free radicals.  Bacopa monnier has a very long tradition of use in Ayurvedic medicine and is also known to contain antioxidants.  The study was under taken to find out the effect of leaf extract of Bacopa monniera on the PAP activity and its Km value in D-galactose induced aging mice prostate. PAP activity was found to be decreased in the prostate of D-galactose induced aging mice than the control, while the activity  increased in Bacopa co-treated prostate as compared to aging induced prostate.  The PAP activity of prostate in Bacopa recovery group was higher as compared to the natural recovery group. The Km value of PAP was  found to be higher in aging induced prostate than in control, while it was reduced in Bacopa co-treated prostate . The value of PAP was less in the prostate of Bacopa recovery group than the natural recovery group.  The study indicated that Bacopa monniera maintains the normal level of PAP in prostatic epithelial cells.

Key words:  Bacopa , Acid phosphatase,  Prostate gland,  Aging


20. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1455-1458 (2008)

Alterations in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity during growth phase of Lymnaea  luteola (L.)

Gajare, K.A., Gujar, N.S., Diwan, P.D., Bansod, M.A. Wadekar, H.R. and Deshmukh A.A.

Department of Zoology, Govternment Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati 444604,  India. E. mail: kavita_kanu@rediffmail.com

Abstract: In  present study lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity were studied in 150 individuals of Lymnaea luteola ranging from body wt. 12 mg to 300 mg. Lipid peroxidation in the form of nM of MDA/mg tissue showed biphasic nature. During early phase i.e., from body weight 12 mg to 142 mg there was possibility of negative correlation (r= -0.45 p<0.001) between lipid peroxidation and body weight. During late phase i.e. from body weight 156 mg to 300 mg there was high degree of positive correlation (r=0.83 p<0.001). SOD activity also exhibited biphasic nature i.e. during early phase from body weight 12mg to 122 mg there was negative correlation (r=-0.60 p<0.001) between SOD activity and body weight and in late phase i.e. from 136 mg to 300mg there was no change in SOD activity along with age indicating the onset of imbalance between formation of free radicals and antioxidant defense during late phase..

Key words: Lipid peroxidation, Lymnaea luteola, Oxidative stress, Superoxide dismutase


21. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1459-1462 (2008)

Familial balanced reciprocal translocation t(11;21) (q13.1;p12) in a child with down syndrome

Chandel, D.

Division of Human Genetics, Department of Zoology, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad - 380 009, India.
E mail: divya_chandel@yahoo.com

Abstract: A previously unreported rearrangement, familial translocation t(11;21) in a child with Down Syndrome is described here. The mother was also carrier for the same translocation and the karyotype of father was found to be normal.  The cytogenetic findings by GTG-banding and silver nitrate staining showed a balanced reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 11q and 21p, i.e. t(11;21)(q13.1;p12). The significance for translocation at these breakpoints will be discussed. The risk of further miscarriages and progeny with abnormal karyotype is high.

Key words: t(11;21), Reciprocal translocation, Down syndrome


22. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1463-1470 (2008)

Fractionation and detoxification of Naja  naja venom, preparation of anti toxoid - IgG antibodies and in vitro neutralization studies

Manjula, J.,  Paul, K.  and Subba Rao, P.V.

Vittal Mallya Scientific Research Foundation, P O Box 406, K.R. Road, Bangalore 560 004, E. mail: manjula751@rediffmail.com

Abstract: In order to separate lethal toxins from less toxic or non-toxic proteins, Naja  naja venom was fractionated into low molecular weight and high molecular weight fractions by centrifugal concentration using 100kDa Centricon. The LD50 studies in mice revealed LMW venom fraction to be lethal than HMW fraction. Further the lethality of the crude whole venom as well as LMW venom fraction was abolished by detoxification using formalin treatment. Anti-toxoid antibodies were produced in chickens by immunizing chickens with increased concentrations of whole or LMW toxoids. ELISA and immunoblots showed the specific binding of anti-toxoid antibodies to the crude venom proteins. Finally, ELISA inhibition and in vitro neutralization studies in murine model proved venom neutralization efficiency of anti-toxoid antibodies.

Key words: Naja naja; Anti-toxoid antibodies


23. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1471-1476 (2008)

Degradation of horse hair by soil inhabiting keratinophilic fungi

Faterpekar, S.K., Jain, S.K.  and Shrivastav, A.

Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Gwalior - 474 009, India. E. Mail: sudhirkjain1@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The ability to degrade horse hair by four keratinophilic fungi viz. Chrysosporium keratinophilum, C. tropicum, C. siglerae and C. minutisporosum was determined by analyzing protein, sulphydryl group in culture fluid. The highest keratinolytic activity was observed in C. keratinophilum, that released 285 g/ml of protein after 3 weeks of incubation followed by 265 g/ml,  260 g/ml  and  182 g/ml  by C. minutisporosum, C. tropicum, and C. siglerae respectively. The results of this work show that all the test fungi were able to utilize horse  hair as sole carbon and nitrogen source and have an important role in bioremediation of keratinic waste..

Key words: Hair degradation, Keratinophilic fungi


24. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1477-1480 (2008)

RAPD markers reveal polymorphism in Commiphora wightii, an endangered medicinal tree

Suthar, S., Thul, S., Kukreja, A. K. and Ramawat, K.G.

Laboratory of Bio-Molecular Technology, Department of Botany, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, E. mail: kg_ramawat@yahoo.com

Abstract: A set of 40 random primers was used to analyze different accessions of Commiphora wightii, an endangered medicinal tree. These accessions were collected from different localities of Rajasthan and Gujarat. A total of 79 reproducible bands were detected as amplified products upon PCR amplification, out of which 66 were polymorphic (83.5 %). Similarity indices ranged from 0.55 to 0.79 among different plants, based on RAPD data. The UPGMA dendrogram showed clustering of different plants into three subgroups based on similarity value. Guggulsterone content varied from 15µg/g to 36µg/g in different samples. Udaipur samples were selected for further work.

Key words: RAPD markers, Commiphora wightii


25. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1481-1484 (2008)

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of isolateted compounds from Canarium strictum gum resin

Suruse, P.B.  , Bodele, S.B., Duragkar N.J., and Kale, M.K.

Kamla Nehru College of Pharmacy, Borkhedi gate, Butibori, Nagpur-441108,  Email: pravinsuruse@gmail.com

Abstract: The isolated compounds (compound A and B) from Canarium strictum Rox. (a member of Family Burseraceae) were investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities at a doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, body weight. The experimental procedures used were carrageenan induced pedal edema for anti-inflammatory activity and hot plate method for analgesic activity. In acute phase inflammation, a maximum inhibition of 68% and 64% were noticed at the doses of 300 mg/kg after 3 h of treatment of compound A and compound B respectively. The compounds also exhibit significant (p<0.01) analgesic activity in hot plate reaction time in mice. This study exhibits that the compounds isolated from Canarium strictum gum resin possess both anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

Key words: Canarium strictum, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic


26. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 8(2) 1485-1489 (2008)

Assessment of potential probiotic properties of lactobacilli strains

Shah, M., Chandelia, Y., Parekh, T. and Patel, V.H.

Laboratory of Food Biotechnology, P. G. Department of Home Science, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh
Vidyanagar-388 120, E. mail: patelvh2004@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: In the present study, the probiotic properties (acid resistance, bile resistance antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance) of five strains of lactic acid bacteria and one isolated strain from home prepared curd were determined. From the results, it was concluded that L. paracasei showed maximum survival rate (41%) at 2.0 pH compared to other strains. L. acidophilus and isolated strains from home  prepared curd showed maximum survival rate (87.15%) at 2% bile concentration. L. bulgaricus and isolated strains from home  prepared curd showed maximum antimicrobial activity against E. coli and L. casei and isolated strain also showed maximum antibiotic resistance. . In conclusion, Lactobacillus paracasei and SIFHPC possessed very good probiotic properties and hence, can  be used as probiotic agents in development of probiotic/synbiotic food products.

Key words: Probiotic properties, Lactobacilli strains


 
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