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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
Electron microscopic radioautographic study on mitochondrial DNA synthesis in adrenal medullary cells of aging and senescent mice

1.  Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2049-2058 (2010)

Electron microscopic radioautographic study on mitochondrial DNA synthesis in adrenal medullary cells of aging and senescent mice

Nagata, T.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, 390-8621 Japan.
E-mail: nagatas@po.cnet.ne.jp

Abstract: In order to study the aging changes of intramitochondrial DNA synthesis of mouse adrenal cells, 8 groups of developing ddY mice, each consisting of 3 individuals, total 24, from fetal day 19 to postnatal newborn at day 1, 3, 9, 14, adult at month 1, 2 and 6, were injected with 3H-thymidine, sacrificed 1 hr later and the liver tissues were fixed and processed for electron microscopic radioautography. The results were analyzed and published in the previous article. Then, other 2 groups of the same strain mice which lived longer, total 6, aged at postnatal month 12 and 24 (year 1 and 2) at senescence were treated the same as before.  On electron microscopic radioautograms obtained from each animal, number of mitochondria and the mitochondrial labeling index labeled with 3H-thymidine showing DNA synthesis in each adrenalin cell and noradrenalin cell, in the medulla, were counted and the results in respective aging groups were compared.  From the results, it was observed that the numbers of mitochondria both adrenalin and noradrenalin cells in the adrenal medullae of mice at various ages did not increase from postnatal month 6 to 12 and 24, respectively, while the number of labeled mitochondria and the labeling indices of intramitochondrial DNA syntheses incorporating 3H-thymidine decreased from month 6 to 12 and 24 due to aging. It was seen that the activity of intramitochnodrial DNA synthesis in the adrenal medullary cells in developing and aging mice increased and decreased due to aging of animals.

Key words: Mitochondria, Adrenal gland, EM radioautography, DNA synthesis


2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2059-2067 (2010)

Superiority of herbal and natural antioxidants mixed therapy over their individual applications in methylmercury  stressed chick: 2. Ashwagandha, vitamin E and glutathione combinations

Sood, P.P., Gupte, K., Joshi, R., Vekariya, V., Vekaria, P., Delvadiya, C., Ankola, P., Barchha, S., Manvar, R., Joshi, K.K. and  Shah, A.

Department of Biochemistry, Saurshtra University, Rajkot 360 005. E. mail: ppsood@yahoo.com

Abstract: The objective of the present contribution is to findout if mixed therapy is better in reducing the methylmercury induced stress than individual application of chelating agents. All earlier observations revealed different effect of metals in different tissues and same is also true with most of the reported chelating agents. It may be due to the fact that different organs have different capacity to absorb and store the toxicants. Therefore, individual application of any therapeutic agent may not be much effective in all the organs. Some helpers, adjutants or the agents which have action similar to the main chelator, used in this study, may accelerate the therapeutic functions. Newly born chicks were taken as experimental animals assuming that they will be free from toxicities before experimentation. The animals were reared in hygienic conditions and supplied with standard food available in market and water ad libitum. Two to four days old chicks were divided into 5 groups (n 9). The animals of first group were kept as control and supplied with vehicle only. Rest of the animals of groups 2 to 4 were injected with a daily dose of 1 mg/kg/b.w. of methylmercury chloride for 7 days. From 8th day onwards they were treated separately. Group 2 animals were kept as such for another 7 days. Group 3 animals were given daily dose of aswagandha (100 mg/kg/b.w. orally) for another 7 days. Group 4 animals were given daily, from 8 to 15 days, aswagandha 100 mg/kg (orally) and after half an hour vitamin E injection (20 mg/kg/b.w.). The 5th group was treated as group 4 along with another injection of glutathione (50 mg/kg/b.w.) after half an hour gap.  After scheduled day the brain, liver, kidney and blood of all animals were analyzed for malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase.  Study shows inhibitions of both the enzymes and decreases in total glutathione and simultaneously increases of malondialdehyde. All these factors clearly indicate the increase in lipid peroxidation, release of free radicals caused by oxidative stress in MMC intoxicated animals. The reverted conditions of all the components of glutathione metabolism demonstrate the efficacy of chelating agents and the maximum recovery in 5th group where, aswagandha therapy was supported by vitamin E and GSH confirming our objectives that of mixed therapy is quite advantageous.

Key words: Ashwagandha, Vitamin E , GSH,Mixed therapy, Methylmercury,  Stress


3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2069-2074 (2010)

Nucleolus organizing region as an etiological factor in Down syndrome

Chandel, D.

Division of Human Genetics, Department of Zoology, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad  380 009,
E mail: divya_chandel@yahoo.com

Abstract: Chromosomal aberrations affect at least 7.5 % of all conceptions; most are spontaneously aborted, so the rate drops to 0.6 % of live births [1]. Down syndrome or trisomy 21 is the commonest and most important of these, with an average incidence of 1 per 700 live births. After decades of research into the underlying mechanism for non disjunction, there is still a surprising lack of understanding of the basic mechanism(s), and chromosomal non-disjunction remains one of the unanswered questions of human genetics. In the present study nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were studied for their role in non disjunction. If a relation between acrocentric chromosome associations and nondisjunction is confirmed, it may become a good indicator for Down syndrome. Similarly, if the association between the double NOR variant and Down syndrome is confirmed, there is a possibility to screen prospective parents for the presence of double NORs to determine if amniocentesis or chorionic villus biopsy is indicated to prevent birth of Down syndrome infants.

Key words: Down syndrome, Acrocentric chromosome associations, dNOR, Non disjunction.


4.  Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2075-2080 (2010)

Polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes and their association with chronic myeloid leukemia

Sailaja, K., Surekha, D., Nageswara Rao, D., Sandhya, A., Raghunadha Rao, D., Balakrishna, B. and Vishnupriya, S.

Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007.  E. mail: sattivishnupriya@gmail.com

Abstract: Diet is one of the essential factors that contributes to about one-third of preventable cancers. Inadequate intake of essential vitamins and minerals might explain the epidemiological findings that people who eat only small amounts of fruits and vegetables have an increased risk of developing cancer. Recent experimental evidence indicated that vitamin and mineral deficiencies can lead to DNA damage. Thymidylate synthase and serine hydroxy methyl transferase are the two genes involved in folate metabolism and these genes showed altered expressions in many of the cancers. In the present study, 266 CML samples were analyzed for 3’-UTR tandem repeat polymorphism in TYMS gene and 262 CML samples were analyzed for C1420T polymorphism in SHMT1 gene. The statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 15.0 version (statistical package for  social science). No significant association was found between CML and folate metabolizing enzymes either with TYMS repeat polymorphism and SHMT1 C1420T polymorphism. Hence the results suggest that folate metabolizing gene polymorphisms have not played any significant role in chronic myeloid leukemia development and prognosis.

Key words: Polymorphism, Folate metabolizing genes, Chronic myeloid leukemia


5. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2081-2084 (2010)
Localisation of  CD4+ and CD8+ cells in goat ovaries

Sharma, R.K.  and Gandhi, E.

Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra  136119.  E. mail: eshu_gandhi@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Distribution and relative frequencies of T lymphocytes (sub-classes) in normal cycling goat ovaries were studied to explain local immunological defense mechanisms. Both the CD4+ and CD8+ cells were observed in primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles. The number of CD4+ cells was higher as compared to CD8+ cells in all stages of the developing follicles. The granulosa cells were more reactive to CD4+ than CD8+ antibodies, whereas thecal cells were more reactive to CD8+ than CD4+ antibodies. The minimum reactivity for CD4+ and CD8+  was observed in primordial follicles while maximum binding was seen in large sized follicles. A few of the CD4+ and CD8+ cells were also observed in the ovarian stroma surrounding follicles. In atretic follicles, number of both cell types increased from primary to large sized follicles as compared to their counterpart normal developing follicles. A small number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells were also found in the blood capillaries around the follicles. The frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was higher in the atretic follicles at all stages. This suggests that T lymphocytes play an important role in follicular atresia rather than follicular growth in normal cycling ovaries.

Key words: T lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, Goat ovary


6  Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2085-2090 (2010)

Gastroprotective role of Vitex negundo linn in albino rats with aspirin induced ulcer

Agnel Arul John, N.,  Sriram, S., Kavitha Sri Lakshmi, J. and Meenaa, V.

Department of Biochemistry, Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College, Tiruchirappalli 620 005.
E. mail: agnelaruljohn@yahoo.com

Abstract: In the present study, the gastroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Vitex negundo (L) against the gastric mucosal damage induced by aspirin was studied in albino rats. Aspirin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 80mg/kg body weight to induce ulcer and the resultant elevated levels of lipid peroxide was taken as an index of oxidative stress. The gastroprotective effect of V. negundo (L) was observed at an oral dose of 200mg/kg body weight administered for 18 days before ulcer induction. The effect of  V. negundo (L) on the levels of RBC, WBC, Proteins , carbohydrates, lipid peroxidase, super oxide dismutase and glutathione were investigated in ulcer induced rats  and the results revealed that V. negundo (L) has a pivotal role in treating ulcer.

Key words: Vitex negundo (L), Gastroprotection, Aspirin, Ulcer


7.  Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2091-2100(2010)

Influence of FGF-2 on the antioxidant status in tissues during various stages of tail regeneration in the northern house gecko, Hemidactylus flaviviridis

Suresh, B., Yadav, M. and Desai, I.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara- 390 002. E. mail: suved9@hotmail.com. 

Abstract: The early events of tail regeneration in lizards include healing of the wound, tissue remoulding and rapid cell proliferation, which are accompanied by production of oxygen free radicals as by-products. However, cells are known to possess antioxidant defenses. A morphometric study conducted in our lab revealed beyond doubt that the epimorphic regeneration in lizards is considerably affected by fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2). Hence, to understand whether FGF-2 plays any role in regulating the reactive oxygen species, the activities of some of the key antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD] and catalase [CAT]) as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), were evaluated in different tissues of lizards subjected to FGF-2 and antiFGF-2. The activities of  SOD and CAT were found significantly higher in the tissues in the FGF-2 treated animals at all the stages of  tail regeneration. The GSH levels though were higher in the FGF-2 treated animals at wound epithelium (WE) and Blastema (BL) stages, at differentiation (DF) stage, however  the treated animals recorded only base levels of GSH. On the other hand, the MDA levels were decreased in FGF-2 treated animals at WE and BL stages, but the levels became comparable to that of control animals at DF stage. The results were confirmed by administering antiFGF-2 to lizards. Thus, FGF-2 could be an important growth factor during tail regeneration helping cells to cope up with the oxidative stress.

Key words: Tail regeneration, FGF-2, Anti FGF-2, Antioxidant


8.  Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2101-2104 (2010)

Immunohistochemical mapping of vascular endothelial growth factor during follicular growth in goat ovary

Sharma, R.K. and  Sudan, N.

Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119. E. mail:  bakshi.sudan@gmail.com

Abstract: Intraovarian growth factors play an important role in ovarian follicular growth. To establish the involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in follicular development, VEGF was localized in normal cycling ovaries of goat. Immunostaining for VEGF positive cells were observed in all categories of growing follicles. VEGF protein was immunohistochemically mapped in theca and granulosa cells of growing follicles. The immunostaining intensity increased within granulosa and theca layers as the size of the follicles increased. Theca cells showed comparatively higher immuno staining than granulosa cells. Endothelial cells and the adjacent  stromal components surrounding the preovulatory follicles were also positively stained. In nut shell, VEGF protein was found in all stages of follicular development suggesting the possible involvement of VEGF in follicular growth. 

Key words: Vascular endothelial growth factor, Goat ovary, Follicle growth

9. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2105-2108 (2010)

A comparative study of Ashokarishtam and clomiphere citrate in combating polycystic ovary syndrome induced oxidative stress in rat

Sasikala, S.L., Shamila, S., Nagarajan, S., Nisha, J.C., Geetha, P. and Kishor Raj, S.

Reproductive Endocrinology Laboratory, Centre for Marine Science & Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Marina campus, Rajakkamangalam  629502, Tamil Nadu. E. mail:  cmst.drsashii@gmail.comA

Abstract: Body has defense mechanisms against oxidants in the form of both enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Oxidants have both physiological and pathological role in female reproduction.  Oxidative stress causes damage to the ovaries, oogonia and ovulation as well as in implantation procedures.  A study was undertaken to evaluate the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) induced stress in ovarian and uterine tissues and to compare the protective effect of clomiphene citrate and ashokarishtam.   Elevated levels of malondialdehyde (37.99 ± 0.88 to 63.08 ± 1.09 mg/g/tissue) and myeloperoxidase (01.59 ± 0.14 to 02.61 ± 0.18 H202 lib/nm/mt/mgptn)  in ovary and uterus were observed in PCOS induced rat.  After ashokari-shtam  treatment  it  displayed  decreased  levels of (p<0.001) malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase in ovary (33.83 ± 0.69 mg/g/tissues) and uterus (01.12 ± 0.15 H2O2 lib/nm/mt/mgptn).  However, clomiphene citrate treatment never resulted in such significant decrease of  either malondialdehyde or  myelope-roxidase.   Study  showed significant rise of reduced glutathione (p<0.001 level) in ovary and uterus after ashokarishtam treatment.  Clomiphene citrate could increase the antioxidant only up to p<0.01 level.   The study shows the extent of oxidative stress in ovarian and uterine tissues as indicated by increa-sed levels of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase and decreased level of the antioxidant glutathione.   

Key words: Ashokarishtam, Clomiphene citrate, Oxidative stress


10. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2109-2114 (2010)

Tanner’s cassia (Cassia auriculata L) extract prevents hemoglobin glycation and tail tendon collagen properties in experimental diabetic rats

Murugan, P.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Bharthidarsan University College, Perambalur,
District, Tamil Nadu 621 107.  E. mail: manomuruganphd@gmail.com

Abstract: The present study investigated the beneficial effect of Tanner’s cassia (Cassia auriculta L) extract which prevents hemoglobin glycation and tail tendon collagen properties in streptozotocin (STZ) –induced diabetic rats. The effects of an aqueous extract of Tanner’s cassia and glybenclamide on plasma glucose, insulin,  glycosylated hemoglobin and the collagen properties such as total collagen, extent of glycation, advanced glycation end product (AGE) linked fluorescence, lipid peroxidation (hydroperoxides), neutral salt, acid and pepsin soluble collagen were examined in tail tendon of  control and experimental groups. Oral administration of Tanner’s cassia (0.45 mg/kg/bw) aqueous extract and glibenglamide to diabetic rats for 45 days significantly reduced blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin with increased level of insulin and prevented the abnormalities of tail tendon collagen properties. The  results showed that Tanner’s cassia extract has  antihyperglycaemic properties and prevents the abnormalities of collagen properties in tail tendon of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Tanner’s cassia extract administration is more effective than glibenclamide.

Key words: Tanner’s cassia, Hemoglobin glycation, Tail tendon collagen, Diabetes mellitus


11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2115-2117 (2010)

Cellulase production by Aspergillus niger fermented in sawdust and bagasse

Guruchandran, V.  and Sasikumar, C.

P.G. and Research Department of Biotechnology, Nehru Memorial College (Autonomous), Puthanampatti, Tiruchirappalili 621007. E. mail: guru.avc@gmail.com

Abstract: Sawdust and Bagasse were used as lignocellulosic substrates for the production of cellulase enzyme using Aspergillus niger after ballmilling and pretreatment with caustic soda.  From the fermentation studies, Sawdust gave the best result with an enzyme activity value of 0.0846 IU/ml while bagasse gave 0.0682 IU/ml. The two lignocellulosics gave their maximum enzyme activities at about the 12th  hour of cultivation, suggesting that the 12th hour is the optimum time when the enzyme may be harvested.

Key words:  Aspergillus niger, Cellulase activity, Lignocellulosics


11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2119-2123 (2010)

Alkaline protease production by Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus coagulans

Asokan, S.  and Jayanthi, C.

Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Trichy  620 024; 1P. G. and Research Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateshwara College of Arts and Science, Peravurani  614 804, Thanjavur.  E. mail: mbasokan@yahoo.com

Abstract: In the present study, 6 different species of bacteria were isolated from the soil sample. Among the isolates 2 species namely, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus coagulans efficiently produced alkaline protease in glucose extract – asparagine (GYA) medium. The protease production efficiency of theses organisms was measured with different carbon sources, incubation time, pH and temperature. Enzyme production was better in Bacillus licheniformis than in Bacillus coagulans. From the above investigations it is concluded that the protease production by these microbes at wide temperature and pH ranges could be explored  for varied industrial applications.

Key words:Alkaline protease,  Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus coagulans


12. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2125-2129 (2010)

Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of herbage of aromatic plants

Patil, Y., Soman, G., Shiney, P. and Wagle, A.

KET’S Scientific Research Centre, V. G. Vaze College Campus, Mithagar Road, Mulund (E),Mumbai 400 081. E. Mail: kelkarsrc@gmail.com

Abstract: Natural antioxidants play an important role in cosmetic formulations especially for protection of the skin against the harmful effect of sun. Most of the cosmetic products use synthetic antioxidants. The present study was undertaken to identify natural antioxidants from the herbage of three aromatic plant byproducts namely Vetiver zizaniodes Grass, Ailanthus  malabarica and Schinus terebinthifolius leaves. Methanolic and methanolic-water extracts were examined by free radical scavenging and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The results showed that all the extracts exhibited free radical scavenging activity maximum being of Ailanthus  and Schinus leaves (IC50 5ug/ml) a value lower than the positive control namely α-tocopherol (IC50 12ug/ml). The superoxide radical scavenging activity was higher with methanolic-water extract of Schinus leaves which exhibited 74 % inhibition  at a concentration of 50 ug/ml. Based on the study the extracts of Ailanthus  and Schinus leaves show potential to be used in sun protection and antiaging cosmetic formulations.   

Key words: Antioxidants, Aromatic plants, Skin protection


13. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2131-2138 (2010)

Antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of acetone and methanolic extracts of fresh and dry barks  of Cinnamomum zeylanicum verum: In vitro study

Priya Rani, M., Venkatesan, J., Binilraj, S. S.,  Sasidharan, I. and Padmakumri Amma, K. P.

Agro Processing and Natural Products Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram  695019. E. mail: kppad@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: In the present study, acetone and methanol extracts of fresh and dry bark  of Cinnamomum zeylanicum verum, were studied for their antioxidant activity viz, DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate the total phenolic content, the metal chelation capacity and the reducing power of extracts. The lipid peroxidation capacity of extracts was recorded using a linoleic acid emulsion system, which showed excellent results. Cytotoxic potential of extracts was evaluated using MCF 7 cells.  Methanol extract of dry bark showed the highest antioxidant and cytotoxic potential.

Key words: Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, antioxidant, cytotoxic potential


14. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2139-2144 (2010)

Beneficial effects of tender coconut water on blood pressure and lipid levels in experimental hypertension

Bhagya, D., Prema, L. and Rajamohan, T.

Department of Biochemistry , University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Trivandrum, Kerala.
E. mail: t.rajamohan2010@gmail.com.

Abstract: The present study evaluated the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) given by gastric intubation on systolic blood pressure, serum and tissue lipids in fructose induced hypertensive rats.  Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed fructose rich diet and were treated with TCW (4ml/100 g of body weight) for 3 subsequent weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured every three days using the indirect tail cuff method. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in fructose fed rats (p < 0.05) as compared to controls. When such rats were treated with tender coconut water the blood pressure was under control. The levels of serum and tissue lipids were also higher in hypertensive rats as  compared to controls. However, treatment with TCW reduced the level of total cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids both in serum and tissues. The results suggest that, TCW treatment could prevent and reverse high blood pressure induced by the diet rich in fructose probably by its hypolipidemic effects.

Key words: Tender coconut water, hypertension, cholesterol


15. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2145-2150 (2010)

In vitro antioxidant activities of Ocimum species: Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum

Ramesh, B.  and  Satakopan, V.N.

Department of Biochemistry, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore  641014.
E. mail: ramesh2575@yahoo.com

Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant activities of 50% hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum species namely Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum. This was achieved by screening the two plant extracts at varying concentrations (10-50μg/ml) using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. The results were analyzed statistically which showed that Ocimum basilicum had more antioxidant activity than Ocimum sanctum.

Key words: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum sanctum, Antioxidant


16. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2151-2156 (2010)

Nicotine and caffeine induced oxidative stress in young, adult and old rat blood

Yadav, A., Jain, A. and Swarnkar, H.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002, E. mail: sjsflora@hotmail.com

Abstract: Nicotine is generally considered a developmental neurotoxicant that exerts damage to the developing brain whereas caffeine is stimulant of the central nervous system.  The aim of this study was to determine nicotine and caffeine induced oxidative stress in rat blood, specifically alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS), erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) level, blood glutathione and blood dd-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity.  We administered a single dose of nicotine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) and caffeine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) to rats of different age groups (young, adult and old).  24 hours after the exposure animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected to study the effect on oxidative stress parameters. Nicotine and caffeine administration resulted in a significant increase in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) accompanied by an inhibition of blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in all age groups of animals compared to normal control.  Blood GSH level increased significantly in young and old rat blood following nicotine administration. No change in blood reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was noted but results suggest a moderate (non significant) increase following nicotine exposure. Our results suggest that both nicotine induce significant oxidative stress in old rat blood however, the severity of the toxicity is more pronounced in old rats than the young and adult rats.  On the other hand caffeine does not show any significant difference between the different age group of rats. 

Key word: Caffeine, nicotine, oxidative stress, erythrocytes, rats


17. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2157-2164 (2010)

Pathogenicity of myxobolus infection and its effect on protein expression in Catla catla in central Gujaratregion

Chavda, D., Bhatt, S., Sreepada, R.A. and Sheth, A.

B.R. Doshi  School of Biosciences, Zoology Laboratory, Bakrol Vadtal Road, Satellite Campus,
Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120. E. mail: bhatt.sujata@gmail.com

Abstract: Aquaculture of Major Carps (IMCs) has increased in India during the recent years. Myxobolus infection in fish Catla catla was detected during December 2007-February 2008 in a pond in central Gujarat (India) during the monitoring of hygienic conditions of carp culture. Infected catla exhibited hemorrhagic condition with necrotic patches on the body, lethargic condition and enlargement of spleen. Myxozoan parasites were detected in gill and muscle. Gills showed the formation of round to elliptical cyst in secondary lamella measuring 37 to 39 µm widths and 41 to 43 µm lengths. Hyperplasia and necrotic changes in epithelia and in connective tissues of gills were observed. In the muscles, the spores were seen along the myoseptal boundaries as well as in the connective tissues along with the destruction and necrosis of myofibril and of connective tissues. The histology of spleen indicated the influence of infection resulting the damage in cell structure and connective tissues. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of protein from infected fishes showed the newly expressed proteins viz., 68 kDa protein in gill and muscles; and 107 kDa and 122 kDa proteins in spleen. Hematological analysis showed the destruction of blood cells and presence of microscopic organisms. Anthropogenic activities in the pond, feeding behavior of fishes and very close contact of spores with fishes appear to be responsible for myxobolus infection in  catla.

Key words: Myxobolus infection, Catla catla


18. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2165-2168 (2010)

Isolation and characterization of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria from sewage sample

Joshi, P.A.  and Jaysawal, S.R.

Department of Microbiology, Birla College, Kalyan 421 304. E. mail: sujata_jaysawal@yahoo.com

Abstract: Sewage sample from industrial area of Vapi and domestic sewage from Thane were screened for bacteria producing poly-β-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Nine bacterial isolates were found to be the most promising PHA accumulating bacteria among 15 isolates. Screening for PHA was done by Sudan black staining. PHA extraction was carried out by Sodium hypochlorite digestion method. Biochemical analysis showed that PHA producing bacteria belong to Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Escherichia and Klebsiella genera. Maximum production of PHA was showed by Staphylococcus species (64.67%) and Bacillus species (68.85%) from industrial and domestic sewage respectively. Glucose and ammonium sulfate was found to be the suitable carbon and nitrogen source for maximum production of PHA. Use of bioplastics produced by these bacteria will be helpful to reduce environmental pollution.

Key words: Poly- β- hydroxyalkanoate producing bacteria, Sewage samples


19. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2169-2171 (2010)

Phylogenetic analysis of enzyme aromatase in selected species of reptiles

Gajare, K.A. and  Deshmukh, A.A.

Department of Zoology, Goverment Rajaram College, Kolhapur 416 004  .
E. mail: kavita_kanu@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Aromatase is an enzyme, which converts androgen to estrogen and plays a key role in temperature sensitive sex determination. Sequences of aromatase protein from  six different reptiles viz. Trachemys scripta (red eared slider turtle), Chrysemys picta, Apalone mutica, Alligator mississippiensis, Eublephoris macularius and Aspidoscelis uniparens were obtained from NCBI protein database and were compared with each other and with the sequences of Aromatase of Gallus gallus, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens by drawing a phylogenetic tree. The results show variation in aromatase protein, which can be correlated with variation in pattern of primary sex determination in these organisms.

Key words: Aromatase, Reptilian phylogeny


20. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(1): 2173-2184 (2010)

Darkside of the night light: Implication in breast cancer

Gupta, P.D., Nayak Usha, Y. and Pushkala, K.

Department of Zoology, SDNB Vaishnav College for Women, Chromepet 600 044 Chennai.
E. Mail: kpushkala@gmail.com

Abstract: Incidence of  breast cancer has increased in many folds in recent years; various studies have shown that it is due to change in life style mainly due to invention of electricity that has changed night in to day. In support of this, three strong evidences have been put forth, viz., Night shift workers, Blind menopausal women model and geographical distribution of day light. Besides age, race and genetics, other breast cancer causative factors are controllable and hence incidence of breast cancer can be brought down by regulating life style factors.

Key words: Night light, Breast Cancer


 
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