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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
Protective effect of genistein and daidzein, in combination, against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage in bone marrow cells of female Sprague-Dawley rats

1. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2305-2309 (2010)
Protective effect of genistein and daidzein, in combination, against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage in bone marrow cells of female Sprague-Dawley rats

Pugalendhi, P., Manoharan, S., Sindhu, G., Vinothkumar, V. and Baskaran, N.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar   608 002, Tamil Nadu. E. mail: sakshiman@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of genistein and daidzein in combination by analyzing the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) treated Sprague-Dawley rats. DMBA, a potent site-specific carcinogen, induces mutations in DNA and chromosomal aberrations through its active metabolite, dihydrodiol epoxide. Elevated MnPCEs frequency, marked chromosomal aberrations and increased DNA damage were observed in rats treated with DMBA alone. Oral pretreatment of genistein + daidzein (20mg + 20mg/kg bw, dissolved in 2% DMSO) for 5 days to DMBA treated rats significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs and chromosomal abnormalities as well as protected DNA damage. Our results suggest that genistein and daidzein in combination has shown pronounced anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic potential in the bone marrow cells of DMBA treated rats.

Key words: Genistein, Daidzein, DMBA, MnPCEs, Chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage


2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2311-2318 (2010)

Biochemical alterations in fish tissues during mercury intoxication and revitalization during monothioles and vitamins therapy

Rao, A.P.,  Joshi, K.K., Tyagi, S. and Sood, P.P.

One Fifty two Huron Drive, Bloomingdale, IL 60108, USA. E. mail: ppsood@yahoo.com

Abstract: In present study  fresh water fish, Channa punctatus was intoxicated with a low dose (0.5 ppm ) of inorganic mercury for 7 days and thereafter, treated with GSH, NAHT, vitamin B complex either alone or in combinations (10 ppm solutions in water) for another 7 days.  Study shows significant alterations of proteins, cholesterol, triglycerides, acid and alkaline phosphatases in all major tissues (brain, liver, kidney, gills and muscles) of fish. These changes are reversed during therapy and the mixed therapy showed the best results.

Key words: Mercury, Biochemical changes, Therapy


3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2319-2324 (2010)

Optimization of capsular polysaccharide production by streptococcus Pneumonia type 3 grown in
a semi defined medium

Chandrashekar, M., Yeruva, S., Mamidala, P. and Nanna, R.S.

Department of Biotechnology, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506009. E. mail: swamynr.dr@gmail.com

Abstract: The optimal fermentation temperature, pH, DO (dissolved oxygen), carbon and nitrogen concentration for production of capsular polysaccharide by Streptococcus pneumonia type-3 in a semi defined medium were determined by using response surface method. The design consisted of 30 experiments. Initial 15 experiments were planned to optimize the fermentation parameters and later 15 were designed to optimize the carbon and nitrogen concentration of the medium. All fermentations were carried in a fermentor with a 2.0L working volume and were terminated after plateau of OD (optical density). The optimum temperature, pH and DO using the semi synthetic medium (Holts medium) yielded an average polysaccharide of 250 mg per liter of culture broth, whereas with the same parameters in the modified Holts medium yielded an average polysaccharide of 400 mg per liter of culture broth. Maximum PS production was observed during exponential phase. Optimal growth parameters like temperature, pH, DO (Dissolved Oxygen Tension), carbon and nitrogen concentration yielded an average of 520 mg of capsular polysaccharide per liter of culture of broth

Key words: Capsular polysaccharide, Streptococcus pneumonia


 4. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2325-2329 (2010)

Hematological changes in patients of malaria

Agravat, A.H.  and Dhruva, G.A.

Department of Pathology, P.D.U. Medical College, Rajkot E. mail: ahagravat@gmail.com 

Abstract: Malaria is an epidemiological problem at the global level.  In Indian sub continent it is a major cause of mortality in immunosupressed patients and in extreme ages of life. Our study is based on early detection of malaria by hematological parameters. A study on 287 malaria patients was carried out at P.D.U Medical College, Rajkot between 1st July 2009 to 31st December 2009 with an objective to detect (a) the most common species causing malaria in Rajkot district, (b) to see the overall hematological changes in patients, (c) to identify the species specific changes and (d) to determine hematological parameters which could guide in diagnosis of malaria. The study showed that Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) as the most common species specific malaria. Most of the infected cases showed anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and thrombocytopenia as common hematological changes.  These hematological values were decreased as compared to control (normal person) in P. falciparum infection than in Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax)  infection.

Key words: Malaria, P. falciparum, P. vivax, Hematological changes


5. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2331-2335 (2010)

    Cytogenetical studies on the effect of Omnacortil on root tip cells of Allium cepa L

Auti, S., Pagare, R., Ahire, D. and Sawale, V.

Post Graduate Department of Botany, H. P. T. Arts and R. Y. K. Science College, Nashik  422005.
E. Mail: autisanjay@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Omnacortil is steroid, an allopathic drug commonly used as analgesic and suppressant in various diseases. In the present work, onion root tips were subjected with a series of omnacortil concentrations, ranging from 0.2 µg/ml, 0.4 µg/ml, 0.6 µg/ml, 0.8 µg/ml and 1.0 µg/ml for 24 hours for studying its effect on root mitosis in Allium cepa L. The roots were examined in permanent root tip squash preparations stained by the aceto-orcein. This work has confirmed that omnacortil have various effects on chromosomes and induced different mitotic abnormalities and structural aberration of chromosomes. Mitotic index (MI), relative division rate (RDR), relative abnormality rate (RAR) of treated material has been determined. Obtained results showed that all the concentrations of omnacortil showed higher MI and RDR, lower concentrations such as 0.2 µg and 0.4 µg showed higher values over rest of the concentrations and control. Among the subjected concentrations 0.8 µg concentration is most effective and showed highest RAR. Low concentrations of steroids act as stimulants while higher concentrations induced various chromosomal aberrations such as clumping and stickiness, fragmentation, C-mitotic effect, anaphase bridge, chromosomal condensation and contraction, dissolution of chromosome, which clearly showed the mutagenic, clastogenic, antimitotic and cytotoxic effect of omnacortil. This is the first report detailing the effects of omnacortil on chromosomes.

Key words: Omnacortil, Allium cepa, Antimitotic effect


6. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2337-2342 (2010)

Assessments of influencing constraint on textile azo  dyes decolourization by Enterobacter species in  intact cell assay

Gondaliya, S.B. and  Pathak, S.J.

Department of Food Processing Technology, A.D. Patel Institute of Technology New V.V. Nagar,
Anand,  388121. E. mail: drgondaliya@yahoo. com.

Abstract: In present contribution dye decolorizing capacity of Enterobacter species under various influencing physicochemical parameters and metabolic influencing agents  were evaluated.  Study shows that the dye decolourization by this bacterial species was significantly higher in bicarbonate buffers. This may be due to  self anaerobic condition generating buffer, present of citrate, puruvate, α-keto glutarate as all  provide  easily available source of reducing  equivalents  through cellular  metabolism. Dye decolourization in presence of redox mediators such as  riboflavin and reducing agents  like cysteine  shows enhanced  effect, while other  respiratory chain interfering  agents and  reducing equivalents  acceptors ( scavengers) like  quinone, fluoride, sodium azide, NaNO2  KNO3, cystine  and tyrosine  shows  inhibitory action during decolourization. Study reveals optimum conditions necessary  for degradation of azo dyes for fast and complete decolourization to get environmentally safe water.

Key words: Azo dyes, Enterobacter sp, Decolourization, Intact cell assay


7. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2343-2347 (2010)

Serum cardiac markers in patients of acute  myocardial infarction

Dhruva, G.A.  and Agravat, A.H.

Department of Pathology, P.D.U. Medical College, Rajkot. E. mail: gauravidhuva@gmail.com 

Abstract: A clinical study on 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was done in Pathology Department, P.D.U. Medical College, Rajkot with emphasis on serological cardiac markers i.e., creatinine kinase- M & B chains (CK-MB), cardiac troponin-T (CTnT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was carried out between January-2008 to December-2009. CK-MB and CTnT are the earliest serological markers to be detected in blood following AMI. Sensitivity of CTnT was more compared to other serological markers. Presence of CTnT was better diagnostic of AMI in vital period. CK-MB is more helpful in the diagnosis of reinfarction. For the diagnosis of AMI, serological markers studied are very much helpful in the vital period.

Key words: Myocardial markers, Myocardial Infarction


8. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2349-2352 (2010)

Screening of medium components for polyribosyl ribitol phosphate production by Haemophilus influenzae Type-B using Plackett-Burman design

Yeruva, S., Mantha, S., Tirumalaraju, A. and Rokkam, S.R.

Department of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,
Hyderabad 500 072 India. E. mail: seenireddy@gmail.com

Abstract: Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen important medium components influencing the production of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate by Haemophilus influenzae type-B under submerged fermentation. Eleven media parameters such as Glutamic acid, Yeast extract, cystein, dextrose, NAD, heamin, NaCl, NH4Cl, Na2HPO4, KCl, and MgSO4.7H2O were screened in twelve experimental runs as per the design. From the standard Plackett-Burman data analysis it was conformed that, heamin, yeast extract, NAD, Na2HPO4 and dextrose had contributed to a large extent, MgSO4 and L-cystein had little impact, while, glutamic acid, NH4Cl and KCl contributes moderately for polyribosyl ribitol phosphate production by haemophilus influenzae type-B under submerged fermentation.

Key words: Polyribosyl ribitol phosphate, Plackett-Burman design, Haemophilus influenzae


9. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2353-2358 (2010)

Are herbal antioxidants suitable biomedicines in heavy metal detoxification?

Sood, P.P., Chundawat, R.S.  and Shah A.

Department of Biochemistry, Saurshtra University, Rajkot 360 005.  E. mail: ppsood@yahoo.com

Abstract: Number of studies have claimed that herbal antioxidants are quite useful in heavy metal detoxication and serve as antistressor agents. To verify this view, six well known herbal  (ashwagandha, brahmi, garlic, amla, moringa oil and C-phycocyanin) products, two inherent  antioxidants (glutathione, vitamin E) and one vitamin, associated with general of cell, vitamin B complex, were used to eliminate hexagonal chromium and release the animals from stress. Newly hatched chicks  (Broiler) were divided in to  10 groups (N 9).  All groups were intoxicated with a daily intramuscular injections of potassium dichromate (5 mg/kg body weight) for 7 day. Out of these, group 1 was  kept as such for another 7 days  and sacrificed on 15th day. This was considered as chromium intoxicated group and served as control for rest 9 groups. Group 2 to 10 were treated with different therapeutic agents (ashwagandha, brahmi, garlic, amla, moringa oil and C-phycocyanin), natural antioxidants (glutathione, vitamin E) and vitamin B complex).  Controls were also maintained and the animals were given vehicle only as the case may be. All animals were sacrificed on 15th day and blood was immediately collected and centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 10 min to separate serum and  RBC. The liver, kidney, muscles and brain were also dissected out washed in double distilled cold water, dried with blotting paper and stored in refrigerator until used.  The  chromium content was analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP) and AAS. Student’s t- test and  ANOVA  were employed to  obtain statistical significance of data. Study shows that antioxidants  application is useful in metal elimination up to some extent as metal enters in all compartments of cell and antioxidant have different power of penetration. On account of this a mixed therapy containing herbal, natural and synthetic antioxidants which can reach all celluar compartments, is recommended.

Key words: Herbal antioxidants, Heavy metal


10. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2359-2364 (2010)

Computational analysis of conserved and mutated amino acids in GP 160 protein of HIV Type-1

Sumit Kumar, Vaishakhi T. and Pratik, C.

Biotechnology Department, VVP Engineering College, Rajkot-360005. E mail: btsumit@gmail.com

Abstract: The multiple sequence analysis of 300 sequences of gp160 of HIV-1 using Clustal yielded sites having amino acids showing varying degree of conservation. The positive selection of mutation in terms of polar, non-polar, hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids for the selected sites showed great degree of variation. The findings of this work could assist in the better understanding of selective pressure exerted on the conservation of certain amino acids at the selected regions in the gp160 protein. This in turn could contribute towards designing of potential drugs to combat the menace of HIV infection and AIDS. 

Key words: HIV type-1, Bioinformatics, Conservation, Mutation, gp160


11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2365-2370 (2010)

Histopathological alterations in Catla Catla induced by chronic exposure of copper ions

Patel, J.M.  and  Bahadur,  A.

Department of  Zoology, Sir P. T. S. College of Science, Surat 395001 E. mail: anita26p@gmail.com 

Abstract: The copper ion toxicity in Catla catla was investigated with an emphasis on histopathological alterations in gill and kidney. Fingerlings exposed to copper sulphate solution for three weeks revealed Cu2+  induced lamellar edema followed by degeneration and lifting of epithelium. A remarkable flickering and jerking movement in fingerlings was observed indicating a stressful condition. It also resulted in swelling of the tips, erosion of secondary gill lamellae, engorged blood vessels and epithelial hyperplasia. Sections through kidney of exposed fingerlings revealed shrunken glomerulus and swollen tubules. The cytoplasm of tubular cells showed degeneration. A clear periglomerular space, peritubular edema, vacuolar degeneration in tubular epithelium was observed leading to glomerular atrophy. Post exposure recovery in fingerling was observed after transferring them to normal tap water for next fortnight.

Key words: Toxic metals, Histopathology, Catla catla (Hamilton)


12. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2371-2374 (2010)

Protective activity of Embelia tsjeriam-cottamfruit extracts against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats

Sambrekar, S.N.,  Patil, P.A.  and Kangralkar, V.A.

Department of Pharmacology, Maratha Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Belgaum 560010.
E mail: sudhir.sambrekar@yahoo.com

Abstract: Objective of the present investigation was to estimate the hepatoprotective effect of fruit extracts of Embelia tsjeriam-cottam in paracetamol induced liver damage in Wistar rats. Eight groups of animals were treated with vehicle, 4 plant extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.), N-acetylcystine (100mg/kg, p.o.), and Liv-52 (5ml/kg,p.o.) for seven days. All the animals were challenged with a single dose of paracetamol (2 gm/kg, p.o.) on 5th day. On eighth day serum enzyme estimation were carried out after sacrificing the animals. Liver was preserved for histopathological studies. Further the effects of the extracts on lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were estimated. The only alcoholic and aqueous fruit extracts of Embelia tsjeriam-cottam produced significant hepatoprotective effect by decreasing the activity of serum enzymes, billirubin, MDA and significantly increasing the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT. The alcoholic as well as aqueous extract also showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The efficacy of alcoholic extract was almost comparable to that of N-acetylcystine and Liv-52.

Key words: Embelia tsjeriam-cottam,Hepatoprotective, N-acetylcystine, Paracetamol


13. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2375-2378 (2010)

Status of sialic acid in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma

Baskaran, K.,  Satish, R., Santhosh, V., Santha, K., Manoharan, S., Inmozhi, R. and Sethupathy, S.

Division of Biochemistry, Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University,
Annamalainagar 608 002. E. mail: jasibaskaran@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Cervical cancer, a malignant disease that invades the uterine cervix, is preceded by a long phase of precursor lesion known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. (CIN). The present study investigated the clinical utility of total sialic acid and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) levels in CIN and cervical cancer. The present study also investigated histochemical expression of glycoproteins in cervical tissue. Serum levels of TSA and LSA were measured in patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and stage I, II and III cervical cancer and age matched controls.  The levels of serum TSA were significantly altered in CIN patients and cervical cancer patients with stage I, II and III. Histochemical analysis showed high expression of glycoproteins in cervical cancer as compared to patients with CIN and healthy subjects. Measurement of both TSA and LSA in cervical cancer patients could be used as an adjunct to diagnosis, monitor response to therapy and assess the staging of cancer.

Key words: Cervical cancer, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Sialic acid


14. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2379-2384 (2010)

Effect of green tea extract on mitochondrial enzymes and IL-6

Usharani, S. and Chitra, M.

Department of Biochemistry, Bharathidasan University, Thiruchirappalli.
E. mail: mschitra21@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Hepato-protective activity of the green tea extract against mercuric chloride induced toxicity was investigated in this study. The levels of mitochondrial enzymes were significantly decreased during mercuric chloride treatment and these alterations were reversed by administration of the green tea extract. The present study also appraised alteration in the level of collagen and cytokine such as IL-6. The expressions of collagen and cytokine levels are maintained in green tea extract treated rats when compared to mercuric chloride treated rats.

Key words: Mercuric chloride, green tea extract, collagen, IL-6, mitochondrial enzymes


15. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2385-2388 (2010)

Evaluation of antimicrobial and acute anti-inflammatory activity of Sida cordifolia linn seed oil

Ternikar, S.G., Alagawadi, K.R., Ismail Pasha, Dwivedi, S., Mahammed Rafi  and Sharma, T.

Department of Pharma-chemistry, KLE’S University College of Pharmacy, Belgaum.
E. mail: ismailpash@gmail.com

Abstract: The oil obtained from Sida cordifolia seeds were found to possess anti microbial activity against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by using cup-plate method This property was comparable with standard drug norfloxacin and griseofulvin disc. Petroleum ether extract of Sida cordifolia seeds also possess anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw edema in albino rats. The inflammation was reduced significantly at 180 minute and 0.375 (p< 0.01). A comparison with control group and standard drug diclofenac sodium, demonstrated that the  values were significant.

Key words:  Sida cordifolia,, Anti microbial, Antifungal


16. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2389-2396 (2010)

Revolution of ‘Nano’ in in-vitro genetic toxicology

Sathya, T.N., Vardhini, N.V. and Balakrishnamurthy, P.

International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology (IIBAT), Padappai-601301,  Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu. E. Mail: director@iibat.com

Abstract: Human exposure to nanoparticles is inevitable as nanoparticles become more widely used and as a result, nanotoxicology research is now gaining attention. The escalating use of nanomaterials in consumer and industrial products has aroused global concern regarding their fate in biological systems, resulting in a demand for parallel risk assessment. Despite the widespread use of nanomaterials, understanding of the toxicity and potential health risks associated with nanomaterial use is extremely inadequate. Recently, some new methods and modified versions of pre-existing methods have been developed for assessing the toxicity of nanomaterials. This review is an attempt to highlight some vital in-vitro genetic toxicology methods employed in nanomaterial testing and to provide a critical analysis of the major issues/challenges faced in this emerging field.

Key words:  Nanotoxicology, In-vitro Genetic Toxicology, Risk Assessment


17. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2397-2403 (2010)

Sub-chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscle and epididymal fat pad: possible role in development of arsenic induced diabetes mellitus

Patel, H.V. and Kalia, K.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, V.V.Nagar 388 120,
Gujarat.  E. Mail: kirankalia_in@yahoo.com

Abstract: Arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the development of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of arsenic on the oxidants and antioxidant status of skeletal muscle and epididymal fat pad of male Albino Wistar rats. The rats (135-150g) were administered sodium arsenite at two different doses 1.5mg/kg and 5.0mg/kg body weight or distilled water (control) for 30 days. The induction of diabetes mellitus in arsenic exposed rats was clearly evident from increased blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level. Skeletal muscle and epididymal fat pad of arsenic exposed rats presented significantly higher level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), protein carbonyl (PCO) and nitric oxide (NO) than control rats at both doses of arsenic, while the activities of antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) were declined significantly in both the tissues of arsenic exposed animals compared to control. A significant decline in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in myleoperoxidase (MPO) activity were observed in skeletal muscle and epididymal fat pad of arsenic exposed rats as compared to control. The results of the study have shown the arsenic induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle and epididymal fat pad, which might be associated with impaired glucose homeostasis, leading to arsenic induced diabetes mellitus.

Key words: Skeletal muscle, Arsenic, Oxidative stress, Epididymal fat pad


18. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2405-2411 (2010)

Fluctuations of glycosidases during mercury stress and their renovation with natural and synthetic antioxidants and B vitamins

Sood, P.P., Rao, A.P., Joshi, K.K., Tyagi, S.,  Patel,  A.D., Sheth, N.R. and Shah, A.

Department of Biochemistry, Saurashtra University, Rajkot; E. Mail: ppsood@yahoo.com

Abstract: The animals living in polluted environment are always under pressure. Presently when our most of water resources are contaminated, aquatic animals are under continuous stress that affect their health, growth, reproduction and survival. In present study  fresh water fish, Channa punctatus was intoxicated with a low dose (0.5 ppm ) of inorganic mercury for 7 days and thereafter, treated with GSH, NAHT, vitamin B complex either alone or in combinations (10 ppm solutions in water) for another 7 days.  Study shows significant alterations of glycosidases ( alpha and beta glucosidase, beta galactosidases and alpha mannosidase) in all major tissues  (brain, liver, kidney, gills and muscles) of fish. These changes  are reversed during therapy and the mixed therapy showed the best results.

Key words: Mercury, Glycosidases, Antioxidants, Mixed therapy


19. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2413-2418 (2010)

A comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant properties of bamboo Bambusa arundinacea leaves extracts

Macwan, C., Patel, H.V. and Kalia, K.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, BRD School of Biosciences, Vallabh Vidhya Nagar  388 120, Gujarat. 
E. mail:  kirankalia_in@yahoo.com

Abstract: Medicinal plants, as source of remedies, are widely used as alternative therapeutic utensil for the anticipation or treatment of many diseases. In present study, we aspire to assess total phenolic and flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant and metal chelating property of aqueous extract (AE), methanolic extract (ME) and butanolic extract (BE) of mature bamboo leaves by various assays. Study shows that methanol was most effective solvent to extract phenolic (14.6 mg GAE/g powder) and flavonoid (6.71 mM quercetin equivalent/g powder) compounds as compared to water and butanol. The phenolic content  of water  and butanolic extract was 2.79 and 4.26 mg GAE/g powder respectively, whereas, the flavonoid content of aqueous extract was higher ( 6.17 mM quercetin equivalent/g powder ) than butanolic extract ( 2.54 mM quercetin equivalent/g powder). The methanolic extract have shown the highest antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and nitric oxide scavenging capacity as specified by lower IC50 value indicative of higher antioxidative capacity. Ferric reducing antioxidant power was comparatively higher for methanolic extract than the other two solvents used in the study. Over all study indicates that in vitro antioxidative properties of methanolic extract of bamboo leaves was comparatively higher.

Key words: Bamboo leaves, Antioxidant properties, Metal chelation


20. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2419-2422 (2010)

Alkaline protease from maggots: A likely source of industrial enzyme

Raimi, O.G., Kappo, M.A., Fajana, O.O., Oku, S.N. and Adeniji, M.A.

Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, College of Life Sciences University of Dundee, DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. E. mail: wale.raimi@gmail.com

Abstract: A protease enzyme was isolated from maggots, developed from chicken and fish remains. The enzyme was purified by gel filtration on sephadex G-75 followed by ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE- cellulose and was partially characterized. Enzymes activity was found to be 1.87 mmol/unit and 13.34 mmol/unit after each purification stage respectively using casein as substrate.  Optimum temperature and pH was 45 °C and 11 respectively. The enzyme has a Km of 0.11 mM and Vmax of  1.21 mmol/min   for casein.

Key words:  Alkaline proteases, Maggot, Industrial enzymes


21. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2423-2432 (2010)

Breast cancer : An overview

Manoharan, S. and  Pugalendhi, P.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar  608 002, Tamil Nadu . E. mail: sakshiman@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Breast cancer accounts for the second largest cause of death in women in Western countries. The incidence of breast cancer in Asian populations is indeed 6 to 7 fold lower as compared to Western populations. Globally more than 7,00,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. In USA, approximately 1,82,460 new cases of invasive and 67,770 new cases of non-invasive (in-situ) breast cancers were diagnosed in women. In India 70,000 new cases of breast cancer and 35,000 deaths due to this cancer are reported every year. Though genetic factor accounts for 10–15% of all breast cancer case, life style and environmental factors play a significant role in predisposing women to this form of cancer. The present review discuss about the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, biomarkers and chemoprevention of breast cancer.

Key words: Breast cancer, Etiology, Diagnosis, Chemoprevention, Biomarkers


22. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2433-2438 (2010)

Multifunctionality of pheromones

Gupta, P.D. and Yogeswari, S.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,ManipalUniversity,Manipal 576 104,Karnataka,

Abstract: Pheromones are low molecular weight chemical substances that are produced by aplant or animal and cause a response in another individual of same or another spices. Pheromones can be of many different chemical types, to serve different functions even for survival of the individual. Pheromones are sending out subconscious scent signals to male or female that naturally trigger attraction, arousal and readiness for sex for propagation of specie. This is perhaps the most vital factor in attraction. These pheromones are detected through the nose and it in turn immediately sends signals to the brain, making the individual subconsciously attracted
to opposite sex.

Key words: Pheromones


23. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 10(3): 2439-2444 (2010)

In vitro culture studies in three varieties of Codiaeum variegatum (l.) Blume using node explants from field grown plants

Bhot, M., Naphade, S., Varghese, J. and Chandra, N.

Department of Botany, Birla College, Kalyan   421 304. E. mail: bhotmeeta@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Node explants from field grown plants of three varieties of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume viz. Norwood Beauty, Punctatum aureum and Undulatum were used during in vitro culture study for induction of multiple shoots. Node explants were inoculated on various induction media and proliferation media for the development of multiple shoots and the media for the elongation of the shoots. These in vitro plantlets when subjected to various concentrations of NAA showed healthy root development. The combination of Soil: Vermiculite (1:1) was used as substratum for the hardening of the in vitro plantlets.

Key words: In vitro culture, Codiaeum variegatum, Node explants


 
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