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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
Creation of cybrids for investigating mitochondrial electron transport chain functions in Parkinsonís disease

1. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2445-2450 (2011)

Creation of cybrids for investigating mitochondrial electron transport chain functions in Parkinson’s disease

Appukuttan, T.A., Varghese, M., Gangopadhyay, P.K. and Mohanakumar, K.P.

Division of Cell Biology & Physiology, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (CSIR), 4, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032. E. mail: mohankumar@iicb.res.in

Abstract: Existence of mitochondrial dysfunction is reported in the blood and brain of parkinsonian patients. Cybrids are cytoplasmic hybrids created by the fusion of anucleate cells with rho0 (ρ0) cell line that has been deprived of its mitochondrial DNA. Present study describes production of normal and parkinsonian cybrids and differences observed in the mitochondrial dysfunction in relation to the expression of certain nuclear encoded mitochondrial subunits and the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex activities. Platelets from patients and age- and gender-matched controls were used to create cybrids by fusion of these platelets with the ρ0 cells. Parkinson’s disease (PD) cybrids showed significant decline in activities of mitochondrial complex I and IV as analyzed spectrophotometrically and increased expression of one of the subunits of complex I, NDUFA2 as detected by densitometric analysis following western blot. These cybrids exhibiting the disease mitochondrial gene and functional expression is a reliable cellular model of PD, and is an invaluable tool for mitochondrial research in this disease, and has been achieved for the first time in this part of the world. It is expected that the cybrids created in the laboratory would enable elucidation of mitochondrial machinery underlying PD pathology.

Key words: Cybrids, Electron transport chain, Mitochondrial genes, Complex-I subunits


2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2451-2458 (2011)

Protective effect of rifampicin on Microcystin-LR induced physiological and haematological
changes in rats

Ravindran, J., Deo Kumar  and  Lakshmana Rao, P. V.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment,
Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002. E. mail : pvlrao@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The cyclic peptide toxins microcystins and nodularins are the most common and abundant cyanotoxins present in diverse water systems. They have been the cause of human and animal health hazard and even death. Microcystn-LR (MC-LR) is the most common and toxic among the micrcoystin variants.  The physiological effects of MC-LR have not been adequately addressed. We report here the results of our study on acute dose of MC-LR (125 µg/kg; intraperitoneal) on certain haematological and physiological effects in rats. The protective effect of a chemoprotector, rifampicin (25 mg/kg; intraperitoneal; 1 h pre-treatment) on reversal of MC-LR induced haematological and physiological parameters was also evaluated. MC-LR significantly decreased WBC count and mean corpuscular volume and the platelet count increased by 1.7 fold over control. The rifampicin alone did not produce any significant change and prevented all the haematological alterations caused by MC-LR. The physiological end points such as mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate showed significant decrease with increase in time in MC-LR treated group. In rifampicin protected group, the body temperature and respiratory rates were found to be significantly lower. The results of this study, especially the increase in platelet count and drastic decrease in blood pressure clearly indicate the inflammation caused by acute toxicity of  MC-LR. Rifampicin pretreatment could prevent the MC-LR induced lethality and reverse many of haematoligical and physiological effects.

Key words: Microcystin-LR, Rifampicin


3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2459-2466 (2011)

Electron  microscopic  radioautographic  study on mitochondrial  RNA  synthesis in adrenocortical cells of  aging  mice
Nagata, T.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto,
3908 621 Japan. E. mail: nagatas@po.cnet.ne.jp

Abstract: In order to study the aging changes of intramitochondrial RNA synthesis of mouse adrenocortical cells, 10 groups of developing and aging mice, each consisting of 3 individuals, total 30, from fetal day 19 to postnatal newborn at day 1, 3, 9, 14, adult at month 1, 2, 6 and senescent animals at month 12 (year 1) and 24 (year 2) were injected with 3H-uridine, an RNA precursor, sacrificed 1 hr later and the adrenal tissues were fixed and processed for electron microscopic radioautography. On electron microscopic radioautograms obtained from each animal, the number of mitochondria per cell, the number of labeled mitochondria with 3H-uridine showing RNA synthesis per cell and the mitochondrial labeling index in each adrenocortical cells, in 3 zones, were counted and the results in respective aging groups were compared with each others. From the results, it was demonstrated that the number of mitochondria per cell in 3 zones, the zona glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticularis of respective mice at various ages increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 1 reaching the plateau from month 1 to 24 due to development and aging of animals, respectively, while the number of labeled mitochondria per cell with intramitochondrial RNA synthesis incorporating 3H-uridine increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 2, reaching the maxima and decreased slightly from month 6 to month 24. The mitochondrial labeling index calculated from the numbers of mitochondria per cell and the numbers of labeled mitochondria increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal day 3, 9 and 14, reaching the maximum and decreased gradually from month 1 and again increased at month 2 and decreased to month 24. It was shown that the activity of intramitochnodrial RNA synthesis in the adrenocortical cells in developing and aging mice changed due to aging of individual animals.

Key words: Mitochondria, Mouse adrenal cortex, EM radioautography, RNA synthesis


4. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2467-2470 (2011)

Role of complement proteins C 3 and C 8 in lymphatic filariasis

Yasmeen, S., Sushant, R.,  Basheeruddin, M.D. and Pratibha, N.

Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007. E. mail: prathinallari@yahoo.com

Abstract: Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide with a high prevalence in India where around 553 million people at risk of infection among which 27 millions are parasitic carriers and 21 million  are with symptomatic filariasis. The disease, caused by Wucheria and Brugia, is characterized by chronic manifestations like enlarged lymph nodes, lymphedema, hydrocele and elephantiasis. A striking feature of lymphatic filariasis is the considerable heterogeneity in infection burden observed between hosts, which can be attributed to host genetic predisposition variations. The role of complement factors C3 and C8 allotypes was investigated in the present study.  The plasma samples of 118 filariasis patients, 100 non-endemic and 50 endemic controls were analysed for the complement C3 and C8 allotypes by subjecting to electrophoresis followed by immunofixation with specific complement antisera. The C3 S allele was found to be significantly associated with the lymphatic filariasis disease and hence may help in understanding the immunogenetic mechanisms delineating the heterogeneity of the disease.                

Key words: Lymphatic filariasis, Complement proteins, C 3, C 8

5. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2471-2478 (2011)

Antioxidantive effect of bamboo leaves extract and DL -α - lipoic acid alone or as combined therapy on lead induced nephritic and neuronal oxidative impairment

Sood, P. P., Chiragini, H. M. and Kalia, K.

Department of Biochemistry, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 356 005. E. Mail: kirankalia_in@yahoo.com
Abstract: The present study has been carried out to investigate the in vivo protective role of α-lipoic acid and bamboo leaves methanolic extract (BME) against lead-induced nephritic- and neuronal- oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats. Lead acetate at a dose of 12.5 mg/ kg body weight (b.w.) per day was preferred as the source of lead in our study. Various oxidative stress markers like reduced glutathione (GSH) content, total thiol (TSH) level, lipid peroxidation, as a parameters to measure degree of oxidative damage and healing due to α-lipoic acid and bamboo leaves extract were studied along with activities of enzymes, like gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase (γ- GT), catalase (CAT), delta- amino levulinic acid dehydratase (δ- ALAD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), responsible for antioxidant defense system. Bamboo leaves extract and α-lipoic acid given at the doses of 250 mg/ kg body wt and 100 mg/ kg body wt for fifteen days after lead treatment overcome the lead induced oxidative stress both in brain and kidney. Both antioxidants alone and in combination eliminate the effect of lead induced oxidative stress by being potent free radical scavengers.

Key words: α-Lipoic acid,  Bamboo leaves extract, Lead


6. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2479-2484 (2011)

Inflection of lysosomal enzymes commotion and hormonal levels by chrysin in carbon tetrach-loride vapour induced liver damage in rats

Rasal, V.P.,  Purnima, A., Ismail Pasha  and Pethkar, S.R.

Department of Pharmacology, KLES College of Pharmacy, Belgaum 590 010. E. mail: rasalvp@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a major cause of chronic liver failure represents a significant clinical problem. We investigated the role of chrysin on lysosomal enzymes activity, catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) and growth hormone levels in CCl4 vapour induced liver damage in rats. CCl4 damage and its prevention by chrysin were assessed on lysosomal enzymes activity and biochemical parameters like serum transaminases alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (APL), bilirubin and total proteins. Plasma catecholamines and growth hormone (GH) levels were also analyzed. The results showed CCl4 damage was associated with increase in ‘free’ activities and decrease in ‘total’ activities of lysosomal enzymes, viz; N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG), β-glucuronidase (β-glc) and acid phosphatase and also increase in catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline), serum transaminases alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and decrease in growth hormone (GH) levels. Chrysin reversed the effects of CCl4 induced liver damage.

Key words: CCl4, Chrysin, Hepatoprotection


7. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2485-2489 (2011)

Characterization of alkaline phosphatase (E.C.3.1.3.1) from giant African snail (Archachatina marginata)

Raimi, O.G., Fatai, A.A., Bankole, H.A., Olaitan, S.N., Fajana, O.O., Kazeem, M.I. and Akobada, K.A.

Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, College of Life Sciences University of Dundee, DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK.. E. mail: wale.raimi@gmail.com

Abstract: Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined in different snail tissue homogenates (digestive gland, gonad and stomach) and the heamolymph. ALP activity was found to be highest in the digestive gland. The Km and Vmax were estimated to be 0.10 mM and 1.37 µmol/min/ml respectively. The pH optimum was found to be 10 and enzyme was stable at 60 °C  for 15 min. Metals (MgCl2, MnCl2, CaCl2) produced an unstable inhibitory effect on the enzyme but  the effect was stronger at concentration beyond 1.0 mg/ml. Other inhibitors such as EDTA, â-mercaptoethanol and fluoro-oxalate inhibited the enzyme at high concentrations. The highest activity of the enzyme in the digestive gland of the snail in this study suggests that most of the organic phosphates in the species are hydrolyzed principally in this tissue.

Key words: Alkaline phosphatase, Archachatina marginata

8. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2491-2500 (2011)

Thyroid induced oxidative stress: Implication in therapy

Sarkar, M., Varshney, R., Dwarakanath, B.S., Adhikari, J.S. and Selvamurthy, W.

Institute of Nuclear Medicine & Allied Sciences, Brig S K Mazumdar Road, Delhi-110 054.  DRDO Bhawan, Defence Research & Development Organization Govt of India Rajaji Marg, New Delhi 110 105. E. mail: rvarshney@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Thyroid hormone is essential for growth, development and regulation of energy metabolism. Hyperthyroidism increases basal metabolic rate due to higher consumption of oxygen leading to enhanced Reactive oxygen Species ( ROS) generation. Oxidative modification of biomolecules and oxidative insult to mitochondria, due to enhanced ROS, has been implicated as a major causal factor in the thyroid hormone associated differential response of patients to therapy. Flow cytometric analysis of ROS levels in Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) revealed two sub-groups of patients in hyperthyroids, one with a 3 fold increase in the oxidative stress levels as compared to euthyroids and the other where a 1.7 fold increase in the oxidative stress was noted.  However, a general increase in macromolecular damage was observed in all hyperthyroid irrespective of the differences in oxidative state.  The macromolecular damage and mitochondrial status was similar in hypothyroid and euthyroid subjects. These observations suggest that a critical analysis of differences in the levels of oxidative stress, experienced by patients might contribute in the future design of therapies for effective clinical management of thyroid dysfunction

Key words: Hyperthyroid, Oxidative stress


9. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2501-2506 (2011)

Five year emergence of non-melanoma skin cancers in Isfahan province and its relation with different amounts of UBP

Behyar, M.B., Moradi, Sh., Derakhshan, R., Nilforoushzadeh, M.A., Shirani-Bidabadi, L. and Askari, G.R.

Meteorological Research Center, Tehran, Iran; E. mail: shahram50047@yahoo.com

Abstract: Ultraviolet radiation can cause various damages in different organisms. Different amounts of ultraviolet radiation are associated with increase in skin cancers and cataract. Ten percent depletion of ozone layer can contribute to 20 percent increase in ultraviolet radiation and as a result, 40 percent increase in the emergence of non-melanoma skin cancers. However, recent studies cannot indicate the UVB threshold level which can cause damages to skin. It can be expected that industrialization trend in mass cities and as a result ozone layer depletion can lead to increase in ultraviolet radiation. To put it in a nutshell, it seems necessary to train people, who are exposing to high amount of ultraviolet radiation, certain healthy behaviors such as wearing sunscreens, no to sun intense rays, and wearing protective clothing as well as emphasis on ozone layer depletion preventive programs. In a cross-sectional epidemiologic study, changes in the emergence of non-melanoma skin cancer during a 5-year period have been compared with changes in ultraviolet radiation in different parts of Isfahan province. According to data obtained from Cancer Recording Unit, Isfahan Health Deputy, non-melanoma skin cancers have been sorted out considering the residential areas of patients. UVB radiation pattern during 5 years (1999-2004) in these areas has been obtained based on the information of Meteorological Organization. The trend of 5 year changes in the emergence of non-melanoma skin cancers based on changes in ultraviolet radiation was analyzed by SPSS 13. This study showed that incidence of new cases of males affected with basal cell carcinoma during 5 years has been increased. The new patients aged 50-70 year old. In general, the trend of changes in the emergence of skin cancers was in harmony with the increased ultraviolet radiation during the 5 years. Study shows that higher emergence of skin cancers is directly related to increased UV rays reaching to earth,

Key words: UVB, Skin cancer , Non melanoma , Isfahan


10. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2507-2513 (2011)

Seasonal variations in anterior pituitary cell types of the Emballonurid bat, Taphozous kachhensis (Dobson)

Nerkar, A.A., Gadegone, M.M. and Kubde, Y.T.

Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Nagpur 440001.E. mail: archana_nerkar1@yahoo.co.in

 Abstract: The pituitary gland of the Taphozous kachhensis has been studied with special reference to the cytology of the anterior pituitary during different phases of the reproductive cycle. Anterior pituitary in various physiological states has been investigated in order to localise the secretory sites of the trophic hormones by employing several cytochemical staining techniques. Six cell types have been recognized in the anterior pituitary on the basis of their morphological characteristics and tinctorial properties. LTH cells are identified by their hypertrophy and hyperplasia during gestation and lactation. The gonadotrophs exhibit cyclical changes in structure and number. LH cells show hypertrophy and hyperplasia during late pregnancy. The FSH cells are maximum during estrus and degranulated cells are observed during pregnancy. The physiological significance of these cell types during different phases of the reproductive cycle of this bat is discussed.

Key words: Anterior pituitary, seasonal changes, bat, reproductive cycle


11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2515-2520 (2011)

Antidiabetic activity of Madhunashini (MD-19) in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus

Burade, K.B.  and  Kuchekar, B.S.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, Government College of Pharmacy, Karad  415124, District Satara. E. mail: k_burade@rediffmail.com  

Abstract: Madhunashini (MD-19), a polyherbal formulation,  has been screened for antidiabetic activity. The hypoglycemic activity was carried out in normal rats, while antidiabetic effect was analyzed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats at two doses of 250 and 500mg/kg of the polyherbal formulation.  Pioglitazone (30 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The biochemical parameters (glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, SGOT, SGPT and alkaline phosphatase were assessed in diabetic rats at both the doses. MD-19 showed its effectiveness as an antidiabetic product in reducing the elevated hyperglycemia in acute and chronic study, but it does not produce hypoglycemic effect. Treatment of diabetic rats with MD-19 restored the biochemical parameters significantly. The present study supports the use of MD-19 as an antidiabetic product.

Key words: MD-19, Alloxan, Antidiabetic


12. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2521-2528 (2011)

Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Godishala, V., Mangamoori, L., and Nanna, R.

Department of Biotechnology, Kakatiya University, Warangal  506 009. E. mail: swamynr.dr@gmail.com

Abstract: An efficient protocol has been developed for inducing somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation from cotyledon cultures of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv S -22.  Cotyledon explants from 10-days old invitro seedlings were cultured on MS medium supplemented with α-napthalene acetic acid (NAA)/2,4–dichlorophenoxy aceticacid ( 2,4-D) / Indole -3-butyric acid (IBA) / Indole acetic acid (IAA) + 6- Benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Cotyledon explants produced embryogenic callus with different stages of embryoids, when cultured on Murshige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with   0.2/0.5mg/L IAA + 2.0 – 4.0 mg/L BAP. The explants with primary callus developed on NAA / 2,4-D / IBA and IAA were subsequently cultured on MS medium containing IAA (0.1mg/L) + 2.0-4.0 mg/L BAP triggered shoot induction. Treatment with 0.5mg/L IAA + 3.5 mg/L BAP resulted in the induction of maximum frequency of somatic embryogenesis with highest number of somatic embryos directly from the explant. Somatic embryo induction and maturation took place up to bipolar / torpedo shaped on the same medium. Where as bipolar/torpedo shaped somatic embryos developed into whole plantlets on GA3 + BAP containing medium. The distinct feature of this study is the induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation from the cotyledon explants of cultivated tomato cv S-22 .

Key  words: Somatic embryogenesis, Plant regeneration, Tomato cv S-22


 13. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2529-2534 (2011)

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Balanites aegyptiaca Del (L.): An industrial important arid tree

Saharan, V.,  Yadav, R.C.  Yadav, N.R.  and Wiesman, Z.

Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Maharana Pratap
University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur -313 001. E. mail: vinodsaharan@gmail.com

Abstract: To exploit the potential of industrial important Balanites aegyptiaca tree; biotechnological tools are imperative. A protocol was developed for high frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Balanites aegyptiaca. Semisolid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) + 0.5 mg/l mT (Meta-topolin; N6-(3-hydroxy benzyl) adenine) induced embryogenic callus from aseptically grown seedling raised root explants. Embryogenic callus cultures were subjected to liquid MS medium containing 2,4-D with combination of BAP (6- benzylaminopurine), mT and Kin (Kinetin). Maximum numbers of somatic embryos (98.2 ± 2.3 per g  callus culture) were formed on media supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D + 0.1 mg/l mT in 4 weeks. On semisolid half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l GA3 ( Gibberellic acid) induced  maximum 79 % plant regeneration from somatic embryos derived from mT fortified medium. Well-developed plants with roots were successfully hardened in green house with 96 % survival.

Key words: Biodiesel, Callus culture, Desert date, Saponin, Somatic embryo


14. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2535-2539 (2011)

 Inhibitory effect of extracts of Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava on glycosidases

 Singh, A. and Marar, T.

Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Padmashree  Dr. D. Y. Patil University, Sector 15,
CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400614. E. mail:  dr.marar@yahoo.com

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine diseases and its type 2 is the major form of diabetes, accounting for 90% of cases worldwide. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important in the control of blood glucose levels and managing PPHG in patients with type 2 diabetes. Amylase inhibitors have been shown to decrease intestinal absorption of carbohydrates by reducing intestinal amylase activity. However, there are few high-quality human studies that support the use of amylase inhibitors for any indication. Herbal alpha-amylase inhibitors have the ability to lower postprandial blood glucose level and should be used in the supplementary treatment of diabetes.  Two herbal plants namely, Syzygium cumini (Eugenia jambolana or Jambul ) and Psidium guajava (Guava) were tested for their ability to inhibit α-amylase activity and to comment on the use in anti-diabetic treatment. The chloroform, aqueous and methanol extracts were prepared sequentially from leaves of guava and seeds of jambul. It was tested against human salivary amylase and it was observed that aqueous and methanolic extracts of both plants showed significant inhibition of alpha amylase. Plants extracts were further tested against rat pancreatic, liver and intestinal enzyme preparations for amylase inhibitory activity. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of both the plants showed high inhibition of rat pancreatic, liver and intestinal glucosidases.

Key words: Alpha amylase inhibitors, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cumin


15. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2541-2543 (2011)

Accessory soleus muscle: A rare tissue variation with its clinical significance

 Gosavi, S.R., Gajbe, U.L. and Meshram, S.

Department of  Anatomy, L. N. Medical College and Research Center, Bhopal 462 042.
E. mail: ujjwalngp@yahoo.com

Abstract: Aim of present study is to find out the presence of accessory soleus muscle and its frequency in human lower limbs. Lower limb of thirty cadavers (26 males and 04 females) were dissected. Origin and insertion of soleus muscle was observed and in addition the presence of accessory soleus muscle was seen. Age of all cadavers was in between 30-42 years. Out of thirty cadavers only in one male cadaver of 40 years of age accessory soleus muscle was present. Accessory soleus muscle may give rise to symptoms such as pain with exertion, during running and jumping. The study of these types of variations with its frequencies is important in the planning of operative treatment.

Key words: Achilles tendon, Accessory soleus muscle


16. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2545-2550 (2011)

Protective effect of Hibiscus polyphenol-rich extract against H2O2 induced oxidative damage of human erythrocytes

Meenatchi, P., Purushothaman, A., Deepalakshmi, J. Kathiravan, M.N. and Shahjahan. M.

Post Graduate and Research Department of Biochemistry, Mohamed Sathak College of Arts
and Science, Chennai 600 119. E. mail: nila_mugil@rediffmail.com

Abstract: In the present study, Hibiscus rosasinensis polyphenol-rich extract (HPE) was isolated from the flowers and evaluated for its protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidation in normal human erythrocytes. RBCs pretreated with different concentrations of HPE extract showed the same hemolysis as that of control samples, demonstrating that the tested HPE extract did not have a harmful effect on erythrocytes. RBCs, preincubated with micromolar quantities of HPE and challenged with H2O2, were analyzed for oxidative hemolysis, met hemoglobin production, and lipid peroxidation. The preincubation of RBCs with the polyphenol-rich extract significantly reduced the oxidative modifications. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was found to be concentration-dependent up to 100µl of the extract, which contained 1.0 mM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of polyphenolic compounds. In conclusion, HPE appears to be beneficial in preventing hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative RBC damage in human system and can improve RBC   membrane permanence.

Key words: Hibiscus rosasinensis,  H2O2 oxidation, Human erythrocytes


17. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2551-2556 (2011)

Studies oneffect of media components on growth and  β-carotene production by Rrhodotorula graminis RC04

Ferrao, M. and Garg, S

Department of Microbiology, Goa University. Taleigao Plateau, Goa.
E. mail: sandeep_garg68@yahoo.co.in,

Abstract: Red pigmented yeast was isolated from a freshwater river flowing through mining area of Goa. The isolate was identified as Rhodotorula graminis using morphological, biochemical and physiological features. This isolate showed the presence of pigments β-carotene, torulene and torularhodin. Effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources was checked on biomass and β-carotene production. Among the inorganic salts, the isolate grew best with potassium nitrate. Although the yield of total β-carotene/gram of biomass was less than compared with other inorganic salts of nitrogen used in this study, the total β-carotene production was found to be maximum.  Amino acids supported accumulation of β-carotene but gave poor yield. Complex nitrogen sources are the best substrates for growth and β-carotene production. Among these, yeast extract is the best nitrogen source for growth and β-carotene production. Glucose appears to be the best carbon source for biomass and β-carotene production followed by glycerol. Highest β-carotene production was observed at a 10:1 carbon to nitrogen ratio.

Key words: Rhodotorula graminis, β-carotene


18. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2557-2562 (2011)

Selection of highest lignolytic white rot fungus and its molecular identification

Metuku, R.P., Burra, S., Nidadavolu, S.V.S.S.S.L. Hima Bindu, Pabba, S. and Ma. Singaracharya

Department of Microbiology, Kakatiya University, Warangal, 506 009,  A.P.
E. mail: metuku.ram@gmail.com

Abstract: Twenty three isolates of white-rot fungi were tested for their efficiency of wood degradation based on guaiacol-oxidation, lignin peroxidase, laccase and manganese peroxidase activities.  The purpose of the test was to select the best isolates that show high efficiency of producing ligninolytic enzymes. Among these KU1009 (Pycnoporus sp. DIS 343f ) strain was identified as the most superior for lignin degradation.  Further its identification in molecular level carried by the internal transcribed spacer ‘ITS’ regions of the ribosomal DNA (28S rDNA) sequencing. The D2 region of LSU (Large subunit 28S rDNA) gene sequence was used to carry out BLAST with the database of NCBI gene bank database. Based on maximum identity score first ten sequences were selected, phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 4.

Key  words: White rot fungi, Ligninolytic enzymes


19. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2563-2566 (2011)

Role of Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit in maintaining the antioxidant status in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats

Pradeep, V., Nivethetha, M., Radhika. J.,  Jothi, G. and Brindha, P.

Department of Biochemistry, Srimad Anadavan Arts and Science College,  No.7, Nelson road,
Thiruvanaikovil,  Trichy 620005. E. mail: radiarun2005@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:  Toxic substances entering into the body are detoxified by the liver and many a times they cause hepatic damage. There has been an upsurge of interest in the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants as antioxidants in reducing free radical-induced tissue injury.  Thus search for crude drugs of plant origin with antioxidant activity has become a central focus of study of hepatoprotection. The animals were divided into 6 groups (n 6). Group I served as normal control. Group II received CCl4 in olive oil (1:1 v/v) at dosage of 0.5ml /150g body weight twice a week for 6 weeks intraperitoneally. CCl4 at the above mentioned dose was administered to Groups III, IV, V and VI and were treated with the aqueous extract of Hyptis suaveolens at a dose level of 100mg, 200mg and 300mg/ kg body weight and silymarin at a dose of 25mg/kg body weight respectively for 6 weeks. The drug induction showed marked changes in the functioning of the liver. Induction with carbon tetrachloride led to a marked increase in lipid per oxidation. This was associated with a siginificant reduction of the hepatic antioxidant system such as reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Pretreatment with aqueous extract of Hyptis suaveolens showed a protective effect on the antioxidant status of the animals which was evident from the low lipid peroxidation levels. This study depicts antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract Hyptis suaveolens.

Key words: Hyptis suaveolens, Hepatoprotection


20. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2567-2571 (2011)

Antisecretory and antiulcer activity of Acacia catechu against indomethacin plus pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats

Karwani, G., Singhvi, I., Gupta , S., Kapadiya, N. and Sisodia, S.S.

Pacific College of  Pharmacy, Udaipur 313 002. E. mail: grkarwani@gmail.com

Abstract: Study was aimed to evaluate the possible antisecretory and antiulcer activity of crude bark extract of  Acacia catechu and its action against indomethacin an non steroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID) plus pyloric - ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats. Administration of crude extract of Acacia catechu (400mg/kg/day p.o.) significantly reduced ulcer index when compared with indomethacin induced gastric ulcerative rats. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg/day p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. Extract treated animals also significantly reduced volume of gastric secreation, free acidity and total acidity. A significant increase in total carbohydrate (TC) / total protein (TP) ratio of gastric juice was also observed. No significant change in the total protein was noted during the study. Acacia catechu was found to be an effective antiulcerogenic agent. The result of this study suggests that Acacia catechu cause an inhibitory effect on release gastric hydrochloric acids and protects gastric mucosal damage.

Key words: Acacia Catechu, Indomethacin plus Pyloric – Ligation, Ranitidine, Antiulcer


21. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2573-2578 (2011)

Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of Barringtonia acutangula fruit extracts in streptozotocin induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

Khatib, N.A. and  Patil, P.A.

Department of  Pharmacology, K. L. E. Universitys College of  Pharmacy Belgaum 590 010,
E. mail: khatibnayeem@hotmail.com  

Abstract:  The objective of the study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Barringtonia acutangula (BA) fruit extracts i.e. aqueous, methanol and chloroform   in   streptozotocin (STZ) 50mg /kg induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats. In addition, the effect off all the three extracts of BA fruit on oral glucose tolerance in glucose loaded normal rats was also determined. Aqueous extract (400 mg/kg) treatment in STZ induced hyperglycemic rats showed significant (P<0.001) decrease in fasting blood glucose levels (BGL) both in acute and chronic study. The activity of the extract was comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide (0.9 mg/kg). Acute administration of aqueous extract (400mg/kg) markedly improved oral glucose tolerance in glucose loaded normal rats, indicating its antihyperglycemic activity. The results of present study indicates that methanol and chloroform extracts do not showed significant hypoglycemic activity whereas aqueous extract of BA fruit possess significant hypoglycemic potential in STZ induced hyperglycemic rats.

Key words:  Hyperglycemia,  Barringtonia acutangula fruit


22. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2579-2584 (2011)

Hematological alterations in albino rats after administration of honeybee venom

Hemke, V.M. and Bhatkar, N.V.

Deparment of Zoology, Shri Shivaji College, Akot  444101, Dist: Akola. E. mail: vjshri@ymail.com

Abstract: Bee venom is a complex mixture of proteins (enzymes and peptides) with unique pharmacological activities. The main enzymes in bee venom are hyaluronidase and phopholiphase A2. Melittin in high concentrations also has caused hemolysis of red blood cells. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of honeybee venom on hematological characteristics of albino rats. Rats were divided in 3 groups viz., A - (Naive) group; B -mammalian saline treated group and group C - experimental Group treated with bee venom. The last group was divided in 3 subgroups (a - 200µg dose, b - 500µg dose and c - 600µg dose). Rats showed primary symptoms of allergy. Hemoglobin and RBC were depleted and WBC lymphocytes and monocytes were increases, In conclusion, these results suggested that the venom peptides altered blood compositions.

Key words: Honeybee venom, Hematology, Rat

23. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2585-2588 (2011)

Evaluation of cutaneous lesions in workers of Isfahan tar refinement factory: A cross sectional study

Asilian, A., Shahmoradi, Z., Mohaghegh, F. and Siadat, H.

Department of Dermatology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
E mail: Amirhossein1@yahoo.com

Abstract:  Occupational disorders may be caused by chemical, physical, mechanical and biological reason. One of the chemical agents responsible for many of the chemical damages is aromatic, polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are found in coke, coal tar, cresosote, asphalt and gases produced by coal. In the current study, we evaluated  cutaneous lesions in workers of Isfahan  tar refinement factory. This was a cross-sectional study. All (about 340) workers of the factory during 2006-2007 were included in the study. They were asked for presence of any skin disorder or symptoms. All of them were then examined for presences of any cutaneous lesion. Physical examination was performed by 2 expert dermatologists. Wood’s lamp examination, biopsy or direct smear and culture were performed to establish diagnosis in the doubtful cases. Overall, 340 subjects, 334 male and 6 female, were included in this study. 58 subjects (17.1%) had history of direct exposure and without protective measure to chemicals. 159 subjects (46.8%) had history of direct exposure but with protective measure to chemicals. In addition, 82 subjects (34.1%) had history of indirect exposure to chemicals. Different kinds of dermatitis were found in 82 subjects (24.1%). Tar itch as defined by presence of folliculitis along with pruritus and comedones were found in 67 subjects ( 19.7%). It seems that annual examination of the tar –exposed workers to find any signs of cutaneous malignancies are essential. In addition, follow up of the workers, even after change of occupation and during retirement, seems to be essential.

Key words: Cutaneous lesions, Tar workers,


24. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2589-2594 (2011)

Utilization  of  visceral  waste  of  ribbon  fish (Trachipterus trachypterus)  for  the  extraction, purification  and  characterization  of protease

Subash, A., Shobana, A., Shanmugakani, G., Swetha, V.P. and  Leema  Josephine, J.

Department   of  Biochemistry ,  Biotechnology  and  Bioinformatics,  Avinashilingam  Deemed  University  for  Women,  Coimbatore-641 043.   E. mail: dranithasubash@gmail.com

Abstract: Ribbon  fish  (Trachipterus trachypterus)  is  one  of  the  most  commonly  consumed fish  in  Coimbato-re.  Ribbon  fish  possesses  all  the  characteristics  of  fish  living  in  very  great  depth.  Their  fins  especially  and  the  membrane  connecting  them  are  of a  very  delicate  and  brittle  structure.  There  is  some  potential  for gain-  ing  more value  from  fish  waste. It  is  rich  in  valuable  minerals,  enzymes,  pigments  and flavours  that  are  required  by  many  industries  including  food,  agriculture, aquaculture  and  pharmaceuticals  industries.  Fish  waste  can  also  be  utilised  in  the  production  of  organic  fertilisers  and  composts,  which  have  significant benefits  over  chemical-based products. The  aim  of   the  present  study  was  to  utilize  the  visceral  waste  of  ribbon  fish  (Trachipterus trachypterus)  for  the extraction,  purification  and  characterization  of   protease. The  wastes  of  the  fish Trachipterus  trachypterus  were  collected,  cleaned,  homogenized,  precipitated  with Ammo-nium  sulphate  of  varying  concentrations  (0-80%),  purified by dialysis, Sephadex-G100  chromatography,  molecular  weight  determined  by  SDS - PAGE,  the  presence  of  protease  confirmed  by   Zymography  and  its   activity  assayed  and analyzed.  The  activity  was  found  to  be highest  at  the  alkaline  pH 7.8  and maximum protease  activity  remained  at  500C.

Key words:Fish waste,  Trachipterus trachypterus,  Protease.


 

25. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2595-2600 (2011)

Ace insertion/deletion gene polymorphism determines efficacy of telmisartan: An ARB in Type 2 diabetic  nephropathy

Haque, S.F.,  Ahmad, M., Khan, A.U., Gupta, V. and Khan, A.S.

Department of Medicine, Medical College, Aligarh  Muslim University, Aligarh 202002.
E. mail: sfhalig@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is the major target of efforts to prevent the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Favorable effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in diabetic nephropathy are well known. However, genetic determinants of the response to ARBs remain unclear, therefore, ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism may reveal the genetic basis for differential response to ARB’s, in diabetic nephropathy.  We evaluated the correlation between Insertion/ Deletion polymorphism of ACE gene   and   the response to Telmisartan-an ARB, on various clinical and biochemical parameters in Type 2 diabetic nephropathy. In his prospective, cross-sectional, open label, observational study, 30 cases of T2DM were evaluated, regarding diabetic nephropathy, renal insufficiency and hypertension. All patients underwent detailed clinical and biochemical evaluation at baseline and post-Telmisartan 20mg/day at 12 week. Genomic DNA fragment on intron 16 of the ACE gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequencing. Differences among mean values have been evaluated by analysis of variance ANOVA or ANCOVA, as appropriate. A p value (two sided) of < 0.05 was considered to be significant. All calculations were performed using SPSS-11.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age of this study group was 45.21 ± 2.34 yrs. The mean age of thirteen females was 44.36 ± 4.21yrs, while that of seventeen males was 46.08 ± 3.74 years. PCR amplification of ACE gene fragment followed by sequence analysis which revealed I/I, (n =8) I/D (n = 18 and D/D (n = 4), types of polymorphism. All the patients were comparatively evaluated. Age wise, all three groups were matched (p=0.012), micro and macro-vascular complications were more prevalent in DD type, where retinopathy and CAD was present in 100% and 75% cases, respectively. In patients having genotype II (n = 8), majority (75%) of patients took longer time >5 yr, to develop overt albumiuria, having lesser degree of hypertension, renal dysfunction, and dyslipidemia than ID and DD genotypes (p<0.005). The D/D carriers and I/D carriers did not benefit significantly from telmisartan therapy while I/I carriers showed significant treatment responses regarding urinary albumin excretion (UAE), SBP, DBP, TG, S.Cr. and LDL-C were significantly higher (p<0.005), in patients of DD type than II and ID groups. This finding suggests that ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with Diabetic nephropathy in Asian Indians. In the present study, it was found that patients with deletion DD polymorphism have significant renal dysfunction, albuminuria and progressive diabetic nephropathy. The D/D  and I/D genotypes did not benefit significantly from telmisartan therapy while I/I genotype showed significant treatment responses.

Key words: Diabetic Nephropathy, ACE Gene polymorphism, Telmisartan


26. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2501-2604 (2011)

An evaluation of two different phenotypic methods for detection of metallo-β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas isolates

Prajapati, S.B.,  Vegad, M.M., Mehta, S.J., Kikani, K.M., Kamothi, M.N. and Pandya, J.M.

Microbiology Department, C. U. Shah Medical College, Surendranagar 363 001. 
E. mail: swetaprajapati83@yahoo.in

Abstract: Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) mediated resistance to carbapenem is an emerging threat in Pseudomonas isolates. The present study evaluates Imipenem-EDTA double-disc synergy test (DDST) and Imipenem-EDTA combined-disc synergy test (CDST) for detection of MBL producing Pseudomonas isolates. Total of 900 bacterial strains were isolated from different clinical specimens and identified as per the standard microbiological methods.  Amongst them 100 isolates of Pseudomonas were taken for the present study. All pseudomonas isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per the CLSIs (NCCLS) guidelines. MBL detection was carried out simultaneously by MBL screening method using Imipenem and Meropenem disc diffusion tests.  MBL production was confirmed by Imipenem-EDTA double-disc synergy test (DDST) and Imipenem-EDTA combined-disc synergy test (CDST). Out of 100 isolates of Pseudomonas, 59 (59%) were MBL positive by screening test, 30 (30%) by CDST, while 16 (16%) were positive by DDST. MBL mediated resistance in Pseudomonas isolates is cause for concern in the therapy of critically ill patients. Imipenem-EDTA combined-disc synergy test (CDST) is more sensitive and convenient MBL detection test in the routine clinical microbiology laboratory for detection of MBL production in Pseudomonas isolates.

Key words: Metallo-β-lactamase, Pseudomonas isolates


27. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2505-2611 (2011)

Dose dependent efficacy of Quercetin in preventing arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat blood and liver

Dwivedi, N. and Flora, S.J.S.

Division of  Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development  Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474 002, India;
E. mail: sjsflora@hotmail.com

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of Quercetin, one of the most widely used flavonoid, against acute arsenic exposure on biochemical variables suggestive of changes in blood and hepatic oxidative stress  in rats. Exposure to arsenic caused a significant decrease in blood d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and accompanied by an increase in urinary ALA excretion. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in blood glutathione (GSH),an increase in the level of blood Reactive oxygen species and arsenic levels. An increase in the level of liver thiobarbituric reactive species along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione content were also observed in arsenic administered rats. The toxicity induced by arsenic was significantly reversed by the simultaneous administration of 50 mg/kg quercetin. Quercetin administration at two lower doses (10  and 25 mg/kg) provided less pronounced recovery in the altered biochemical variables compared to the higher dose. The results suggest adequate intake of quercetin during arsenic exposure may prevent arsenic absorption and oxidative stress.

Key words: Arsenic, Oxidative stress, Quercetin, Prevention


28. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2613-2624 (2011)

Pre-clinical safety evaluation of DRDE/WH-02: A challenging wound healing formulation for SM induced skin lesions

Lomash, V., Jadhav, S.E., Vijayaraghavan, R., Pant, J.C. and Pant, S.C.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment,  Jhansi road, Gwalior 474002.  E mail: scpant56@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Sulphur mustard (SM), chemically bis (2-chloroethyl) sulphide is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes cutaneous blisters in human or animals. There is no specific therapy for SM induced skin injury, however, DRDE/WH-02 (containing PVP-I, Aloe vera gel and betaine) has proved to be an effective remedy for SM dermatotoxicity in preclinical studies. This study was planned to evaluate safety of DRDE/WH-02 for risk assessment and dose interpolation in humans during clinical trials. Skin corrosiveness and skin irritation potential was assessed by primary skin irritation test (Draize test) which showed that DRDE/WH-02 is not irritant to the rabbit’s skin. Acute toxicity studies were carried out using two doses viz. 3.2 g/kg or 6.4 g/kg by oral or dermal route. There were no adverse clinical/ toxic signs and pre terminal deaths. The evaluated median lethal dose LD50 of the test item was found to be more than 6.4 g/kg body weight by either dermal or oral route. Cumulative biological effect of DRDE/WH-02 was evaluated in Wistar rats by dermal route at dose of 1g and 2 g/kg daily for 90 days. There were no toxic/clinical signs, pre-terminal deaths and inter group differences in body weights and feed and water intake in different groups. There were no treatment related changes in haematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights and gross or histopathological findings in different groups. No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of DRDE/WH-02 in repeated dermal administration to Wistar rats was found to be more than 2 g/kg body weight under the testing conditions.

Key words: Aloe vera Wound healing formulation, Skin lesions, PVP-I, NOAEL


29. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2625-2630 (2011)

Anti-inflammatory activity of DRDE-35 in LPS induce mouse peritonitis model

Gautam, A., Gupta, N., Rai, R.  and Vijayaraghavan, R.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002, E.mail: anshoo_gautam@hotmail.com

Abstract: DRDE-35 is a recently discovered aminothiol related to amifostine that has emerged as a potential antidote for sulphur mustard. Because human septic shock involves excessive inflammatory cytokine production, we investigated the effect of DRDE-35 on the production of inflammatory mediators and its therapeutic action in murine models of endotoxemia. DRDE-35 down-regulated the production of inflammatory mediators by endotoxin activated peritoneal membrane. The protective effect of DRDE-35 was mediated by decreasing the local and systemic levels of a wide spectrum of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. This work provides the evidence of DRDE-35 as an anti-inflammatory molecule.

Key words: DRDE-35, inflammation, peritonitis


30. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2631-2654 (2011)

Microbial fuel cell technology: A review on electricity generation

Gupta, G., Sikarwar, B., Vasudevan, V., Boopathi, M.,  Kumar, O., Singh. B. and Vijayaraghavan, R.

Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior-474 002. E. mail: boopathi@drde.drdo.in

Abstract: In this review a brief description is given for the biofuel cells along with their classification. The review is mainly intended to concentrate on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) where micro-organisms are used to convert the fuel to electrical energy and also this review gives an overview of the advances made in the past two years in MFCs in terms of their research, development and performance. Some researchers have uncovered the greatest value of MFC technology and which may not be used for the large scale production of electricity, however, they have demonstrated their ability to degrade wastes and toxic chemicals in a greener way. Various approaches on further development to overcome the current challenges in MFCs have been reviewed. This innovative technology will have a major impact and benefit in medical science, clinical research and energy production from renewable sources.

Key words: Microbial fuel cell; Biofuel cells; Enzymatic fuel cell


3 1. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2655-2671 (2011)

An overview of tuberculosis treatments and diagnostics. What role could metabolomics play?

Olivier, I. and Loots, D.T.

School for Physical and Chemical sciences, Centre for Human Metabonomics, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa. E-mail:  dutoit.loots@nwu.ac.za

Abstract:  In 2001, the WHO declared TB a global emergency, as one third of the worlds population suffered from latent M. tuberculosis infection.  Today, a decade later, millions of people still die worldwide as a result of this disease.  The growing TB incidence may be ascribed to a variety of reasons, including, amongst others, the inadequacies associated with the currently available diagnostic methods and TB treatment regimes, especially when considering the growing MDR-TB and HIV epidemics.  This review discusses and compares the various TB diagnostic and treatment approaches researched and developed to date, considering these with regards to their advantages and shortcomings.  We additionally discuss the potential of a relatively new research approach, termed metabolomics, as a tool for new biomarker discovery, and consequently, better diagnostic approaches. Furthermore, this approach, when used alone or in combination with other “omics” techniques, allows for a better understanding of TB disease mechanisms, which may ultimately lead to improved treatment regimens, bringing us ever closer to eradicating this disease.  

Key words: Tuberculosis, Treatment, Diagnostics, Metabolomics


32. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2673-2683 (2011)

Improved disease characterisation and diagnostics using metabolomics: A review

Schoeman, J.C. and Loots, D.T.

School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, Centre for Human Metabonomics, North-West University Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa. E mail: dutoit.loots@nwu.ac.za

Abstract: Despite our most fervent efforts in combating disease, using the current diagnostic practises and treatment protocols available, certain diseases prevalence’s continue to rise.  This is most likely due to an incomplete understanding of disease mechanisms and the influence of these on their host.  This incomplete understanding is usually due to lacking knowledge, as a result of limitations in current knowledge generation, due to the inadequate methods available for collecting the missing information. Considering this, metabolomics is a welcomed new research approach, which can, in itself, not only be used for new disease biomarker detection, contributing to improved disease diagnostics, but when combined with information generated from other “omics” disciplines, in a systems biology research approach, may contribute to an in depth understanding of disease mechanisms. This in turn may lead to better treatment outcomes and ultimately lowering disease prevalence.

Key words: Metabolomics, Analytical Methods, Diagnostics, Disease Biomarkers


33. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2685-2690 (2011)

Matrix metalloproteinase 11(MMP11) and its role in tumorigenesis in pets: A review

Sunilkumar, B.V., Kataria, M.  and Aswanikumar, K.

Division of Animal Biochemistry, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122
E. mail:  mkataria97@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Metastasis is a complex series of steps in which cancer cells leave the original tumor site and migrate to other parts of the body via the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. To do so, malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and egrade proteins that make up the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), which separates the tumor from adjoining tissue. By degrading these proteins, cancer cells are able to breach the ECM and escape. In order for cells to move through the body, they must first climb over/around neighboring cells. They do this by rearranging their cytoskeleton and attaching to the other cells and the extracellular matrix viap proteins  on the outside of their plasma membranes. The cells can crawl until they hit a blockage which cannot be bypassed. Often this block is a thick layer of proteins and glycoproteins called the the basal lamina or basement membrane. In order to cross this layer, cancer cells secrete a mixture of digestive enzymes called Matrix metalloproteases that degrade the proteins in the basal lamina and allow them to crawl through. Once the cells have traversed the basal lamina, they can spread throughout the body.

Key words: Tumor, Metastasis, Metalloproteases


34. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2691-2696 (2011)

Formulation and evaluation of ketoconazole microsponge gel by quassi emulsion solvent diffusion

Saboji, J.K.,   Manvi, F.V., Gadad,  A.P. and Patel, B.D.

Department of Pharmaceutics, K.L.E’s College of Pharmacy, Nipani  591237; E. mail: klecopnpn@ymail.com
.
Abstract: Microsponge containing Ketoconazole drug with six different proportions of Eudragit RS 100 as polymer were obtained successfully using quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. These formulations were studied for particle size and physical characterization. The physical characterization showed that microsponge formulation MS IV and MS VI showed a better loading efficiency and production yield. These two microsponge formulation were prepared as gel in 0.35 %w/w carbopol and studied for pH, viscosity, spreadability, drug content, in vitro release, antimicrobial activity and in vivo antifungal activity studied on guinea pig skin. The microsponge formulation gel, MKG 1 showed viscosity 4390 cps, spreadability of 19.27 g cm/s and drug content of 85.2%. The antimicrobial studies showed zone of inhibition with 13.5 mm and 12.0 mm  for microsponge formulation gel MKG 1 and MKG 2 respectively when compared with pure drug, zone of inhibition 18.2 mm. These formulations also showed better antifungal activity on fungal induced guinea pig skin when compared with control group without application of drug. The microsponge ketoconazole gel formulations showed an appropriate drug release profile and also bring remarkable decrease on gel application for fungal treatment.

Key words: Microsponge, Ketoconazole, Antidandruff, Antimicrobial


35. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2697-2701 (2011)

Ethical and legal issues of skin stem cells research: Information confidentiality, accessibility and informed consent

Heidari, A.,  Nilforoushzadeh, M.A., Raeisi, A.R., Saghaeiannejad, S. and  Siadat, A H.

Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
E mail: Amirhossein1@yahoo.com

Abstract: Stem cell research (SCR) is an important modern field of biomedical advances with many therapeutic applications for a many diseases that also debates about the source of the cells. Skin contains specialized adult stem cells to maintain a proper protective function and can be included fibroblasts, keratinocytes, melanocytes and even hair follicles and epidermis contained keratinocytes that are clonogenic. There is already amount of research on ethical, legal, and social issues in stem cell research that specialists debate in relevant areas facilitation of biomedical research critically depends on the use of personal information. When personal information is used in research, it is necessary to consider the confidentiality of the information and privacy of the person throughout the research process and in any publication resulting from it. Bioethics analysis, theories and standards is needed to guide and conduct policymaking in this field and to provide an appropriate evidence-based policy in developing countries. Authorities must be required to establish statutory framework and appropriate ethical and scientific supervision for information confidentiality and accessibility limitation.Consents should be observed standardized regulation and obtained for both researches and access to human subjects or patients information.  

Key  words: Ethical, Legal, Stem cell, Informed consent

36. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2703-2708 (2011)

Dermal exposure of nanoparticles:  An understanding

Gautam, A.,  Singh, D. and Vijayaraghavan, R.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment,
Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002. anshoo_gautam@hotmail.com

Abstract: Special surface properties of nano range particles have great interest now a day’s. In this rapidly growing field, many nano size materials are produced for diverse applications starting from cosmetics to sensors. Possible occupational and accidental adverse health effects of these materials are so far scarcely investigated. Although dermal toxicity has been analyzed many times, this review emphasizes the local and systemic toxicity caused after dermal absorption of nanoparticles. Mechanism of absorption of nanoparticles and its co-relation with size have been discussed in this review. On the basis of existing literature, the potentially most relevant cellular target sites of nanoparticles, starting with nanoparticles uptake across the cell membrane, mechanisms of generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of redox-sensitive signalling cascades are described. Finally, the precautions and safety measures require at the time of nanoparticle dermal usage have been discussed.

Key words: Nanoparticles, Dermal exposure


37. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2709-2712 (2011)

Statistical analysis of anemia in general population  of Rajkot

Mehta, K.J. and Ghosh, D.K.

Department of  Statistics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 005, E. mail: khyatimehta74@gmail.com 

Abstract: Anemia is estimated to affect about 2000 million people mostly in the developing countries. In India huge number of population is undernourished, hence anemic. In present   study hemoglobin in general Rural & Urban population was projected in Rajkot city.  This study was conducted to know the instance of anemia in Rajkot population. 440 patients were selected for the study. Their health age, gender, caste, and routine diet was recorded, and thereafter analyzed for anemia.  Study shows that females, specific castes like lohana, Sindhi, B.C. and vegetarians are particularly prone to lower hemoglobin concentration and demand regular screening. Whatever the underlying cause may be poor socio-economic condition, lack of health education and inadequate health facilities in rural areas of the developing countries appear to be main causes.

Key words:  Anemia, Statistical Analysis, Iron deficiency, Rajkot


38. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2713-2721 (2011)

Inflammatory biomarkers of sulphur mustard exposure and their amelioration with prophylactic
treatment

Bhutia, Y.D.,  Singh, P., Lomash, V., Pant, S.C., and Vijayaraghavan, R.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment,
Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474 002, E. mail: yancy09@gmail.com

Abstract:  Sulfur mustard, SM (Bis 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide) is an alkylating and cytotoxic chemical warfare agent, which inflicts severe skin toxicity and an inflammatory response. Effective medical countermeasures against SM-caused skin toxicity are lacking due to limited knowledge of related mechanisms. Using SM, we tried to identify quantifiable inflammatory biomarkers of SM-induced skin injury in Swiss albino mice. We pretreated the animals with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, a steroid, dexamethasone and an analog of radioprotectant drug amifostine, DRDE-07(amino ethyl amino ethyl phenyl sulphide), which is shown to protect against SM in earlier studies. The objective of this study was to compare the effect produced by DRDE-07 to those offered by known anti-inflammatory agents, indomethacin and dexamethasone in a time related (3, 6, 24 h) manner by examining the release of inflammatory biomarkers like IL-6, apoptosis and the early histopathological changes seen. The level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 kept steadily increasing in the group exposed to SM but was reduced by prophylactic  treatment at all the three time points 3, 6, 24 h.  Histopathological studies show that the loss of normal cellular architecture and infiltration of inflammatory cells and increase in the number of infiltrating mast cells due to exposure to SM were recovered in the prophylactic treatment group. Immunohistochemistry with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) showed reduced number of PCNA positive cells in the prophylactic treatment group. To conclude, SM toxicity attributable to inflammatory changes can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with agents that inhibit the inflammatory process and the anti-inflammatory effect shown by DRDE-07 was comparable to the standard anti-inflammatory treatment.

Key words: Biomarkers, Cytokines, Inflammation, Sulphur mustard


39. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(1): 2723-2729 (2011)

Concomitant supplementation of Gossypin : A bioflavonoid protects lead and ethanol induced oxidative stress in rats

Gautam, P. and Flora, S.J.S.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defense Research and Development Establishment,
Jhansi Road, Gwalior - 474 002, E-mail: sjsflora@hotmail.com; sjsflora@drde.drdo.in

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of gossypin co-administration during lead-ethanol co-exposure. In one of our earlier study we reported the protective efficacy of gossypin against lead induced oxidative stress and it was of interest to observe the efficacy in the situation of combined lead-ethanol exposure. Animals were exposed to lead as lead nitrate (2 mg/kg, i.p. once daily), ethanol (5%) was given in drinking water or the combination, while gossypin was administered orally dissolved in polyethyleneglycol (PEG). Oxidative stress variables were determined in blood, liver, kidney and brain. Gossypin administration was able to restore blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood was also noted when gossypin was co-administered during lead-ethanol co-exposure. The levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and ROS were also carried out in brain, liver and kidney and showed significant depletion on lead, ethanol or lead-ethanol co-exposure. Co-administration of gossypin significantly protected these changes suggesting protection against lead-ethanol and lead-ethanol induced oxidative stress. Thus, the present study suggests that gossypin protects lead induced oxidative stress irrespective of individual or combined lead-ethanol co-exposure. 

Key words: Lead toxicity, Oxidative stress, Gossypin, Rats


 
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