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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
Plant hormones and their relevance to the mammalian brain: A review
1. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2885-2289 (2011)

Plant hormones and their relevance to the mammalian brain: A review

Nthenge-Ngumbau, D. N. and Mohanakumar, K. P.

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience, Division of Cell Biology and Physiology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, E. Mail: mohankumar@iicb.res.in

Abstract: Plants contain hormones that regulate the growth of roots and shoots, stems and leaves, fruit development and ripening, its longevity and demise. A careful assessment of published literature of these hormones' action on the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) reveals a puzzling variation of effects. Plant hormones have a great role to play in the redox metabolism and to a lesser extent in apoptotic cell death in the brain. It has influence in neurotransmitter metabolism and innate behavior. It is interesting to realize that the beneficial effects of certain traditional systems of medicine, including Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha derive its therapeutic potency from the endogenous neuroactive substances contained in plants. No reports are available in literature to date that showed any specific receptors in the brain for any of these hormones, unlike the classical plant alkaloids, opium, caffeine and nicotine. In view of reported serious CNS adverse effects in experimental animals, it is urgent to investigate phytohormones and their interaction in the nervous system.

Key words: Plant hormones, Mammalian nervous system relevance


2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2891-2298 (2011)

Protective effect of chitosan against skin lesions induced by sulphur mustard

Lomash, V., Pant, S.C. Singh, D., Gautam, A., Rai, R., Yadav, P., Pant, J.C. and Vijayaraghavan, R.

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474 002. E. mail: scpant56@rediffmail.com

Abtract: An experiment was designed to study the sulphur mustard (SM) toxicity and its protection by chitosan. Chitosan was applied dermally once daily in Swiss albino mice after 24 hours of SM exposure. Daily body weight was recorded and animals were sacrificed on day 7 or day 14. Organs and body weights indices were calculated for liver, kidney, spleen and lungs. Hematology assay and histopathological analysis of liver, lung, spleen, kidney and skin were performed. Liver was assayed for oxidized and reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde level. No significant change was observed in absolute body weight, organ body weight indices and hematological parameters in treated and control mice. Liver glutathione (oxidised and reduced) and malondialdehyde levels were not significantly altered compared to control, and this was also supported by normal histology of liver, Lung, spleen and kidney after microscopic evaluation. SM exposed and chitosan treated mice skin had shown early formation of eschar, extensive proliferation of collagenous tissue and reepithelialization. The present study suggested protective effect of chitosan against SM induced skin lesions.

Key words: Sulphur mustard, Wound healing, Chitosan


3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2899-2908 (2011)

Low dose heterogeneous chemical mixture exposure for the duration of one seminiferous epithelial cycle impairs spermatogenesis and induce oxidative stress in rat testis

Morya, K. and Vachhrajani, K.D.

Division of Environment and Toxicology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. E. mail: kauresh@gmail.com

Abstract: Testicular toxicity of individual chemicals is well reported, however, the toxic responses may change with the heterogeneous chemical mixture owing to the variable mode of action and interactions among the mixture components. Present study was undertaken to investigate the testicular toxicity of heterogeneous chemical mixture consisting of heavy metals and organicals following low dose exposure in rats. Adult male rats were administered vehicle (corn oil, group II) or 1/100 of LD50 value of each component of heterogeneous chemical mixture consisting of cadmium chloride, chromium trioxide, phthalic acid dibutyl ester and 1, 2-dichlorobenzene (group III) through oral gavage for 12 days to observe the spermatogenic alterations (qualitative and quantitative) and oxidative stress status of testicular tissues. Group I served as untreated control. Prominent histological alterations were noted exhibiting spermatogenesis inhibition. Seminiferous epithelial (SE) stage specific studies showed less severe cellular lesions in the tubules at SE stages V-VIII, while those at SE stages IX-XIV were most affected. Induction of oxidative stress was evidenced by the alterations in the enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. The heterogeneous chemical mixture also impaired the sterodogenic enzyme functions. The studies demonstrate that even at low doses heterogeneous chemical mixture potentially induced testicular toxicity.

Key words: Heterogeneous chemical mixture, Testicular toxicity, Oxidative stress


4. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2909-2918 (2011)

Chemopreventive potential of chrysin in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats

Srinivasan, R. and Manoharan, S.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University,
Annamalai nagar-608002, Tamilnadu

Abstract: The present study has investigated the chemopreventive potential of chrysin in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. The chemopreventive potential of chrysin was assessed by monitoring the tumor incidence and by analyzing the status of biochemical markers (lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes) during DMBA induced mammary carcinogenesis. A single subcutaneous injection of 25mg of DMBA in 1ml emulsion of sunflower oil (0.75ml) and physiological saline (0.25ml) to each rat developed mammary carcinoma after 14 weeks. Oral administration of chrysin at a dose of 250mg/kg bw to rats treated with DMBA significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as reverted the status of phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, lipid peroxidation by-products and antioxidants to normal range. The present study thus demonstrates the chemopreventive efficacy of chrysin in DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

Key words: Chrysin, Mammary cancer, Antioxidants


5. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2919-2923 (2011)

Post natal development of Caprine haemal nodes: A gross and histological study

Choudhary, R.K., Das, P. and Ghosh. R.K.

Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, 37, K. B. Sarani, Kolkata 700037
E. mail: dr.ratneshchoudhary@gmail.com

Abstract: Post natal development of caprine haemal nodes from 0th day to 5th months of age were studied by light microscopy. The haemal nodes were harvested from cervical, shoulder, thoracic and abdominal regions. The shape and size of the haemal node was elliptical to spherical and 5mm in average diameter. The two layers thick capsule was found around the parenchyma. Besides connective tissue fibres smooth muscle and blood capillaries were predominant in the innermost layer. The parenchyma was incompletely divided by the trabeculae which was distinct from 2nd months onward. From the date of birth cortex, medulla, subcapsular and medullary sinuses were observed. Megakaryocytes, proerythroblasts and erythroblasts were detected from the day old goat and size increase according to the advancement of age. Efferent lymph vessel was found but there was no trace of afferent lymph vessel. The lymph vessels were present around the border of the secondary lymph nodules. Some goat of 4th months of age histologically the eosinophilic pink colour appeared yellow brown. Our results had demonstrated that the rate of destruction of erythrocytes was more from 4th months onward.

Key words: Caprine haemal nodes, Post natal development


6. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2925-2936 (2011)

Role of Cox-2 induced PGE2 in epimorphosis: Regulation of stage specific expression of proteins
Sharma, P., Anusree, P. And Desai, I. and Suresh, B.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda,
Vadodara- 390 002, India. E. mail: suved9@hotmail.com

Abstract: Biosynthesis of proteins is one of the most important biochemical processes during regeneration. Further, for successful regeneration, extensive remodelling of the extracellular matrix is essential during the initial stages of wound healing and dedifferentiation. In the current study, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an upstream modulator of PGE2 was targeted using Etoricoxib, a COX-2 specific inhibitor and effects on the protein expression and degradation during various stages of reptilian regeneration were explored. SDS-PAGE profiling revealed that a large number of polypeptides of identical mobility were found in both treated and control samples, although a number of them were absent in treated samples. There was also a difference between control and treated samples in the abundance of the proteins with identical mobility. Etoricoxib treatment also altered the plasma protein profile. Proteolytic activities were evaluated through Gelatin Zymography. Significantly lower MMP activity was observed in treated samples as compared to that of control samples. Thus, the present study unfolds the possible involvement of PGE2 in the regulation of protein balance in the regenerate during various stages of regeneration.

Key words: Etoricoxib, PGE2, Epimorphosis, Protein profile


7. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2937-2942 (2011)

Protective effects of Curcumin in chromium induced cytogenetic damage in germ cells of mice

Rudramadevi, K. and Moshe Raju, M.

Human genetics and Toxicology Lab, Dept. of Zoology, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007

Abstract: Natural dietary antioxidants are extensively studied for their ability to protect cells from damage to DNA induced by heavy metals. Two experiments were conducted in the first experiment the antigenotoxic effects of curcumin were studied in meiotic cells of mice. Three concentrations were tested 5, 7.5 a 10mg/kg .the prepared slides were observed for various types of chromosomal aberrations in diakinesis-1, metaphase stage of meiosis. There was no increase in the percentage of aberrations when compared with control values. In the second experiment when animals were treated with highest concentration of chromium, significant increase in the percentage of CA's was noted .However when animals were primed with curcumin prior to chromium treatment, the cells showed inhibition by curcumin in treated groups. Hence present results indicate that the curcumin in afforded much protection against heavy metal genotoxicity in germ cells of mice.

Key words: Curcumin, genotoxicity, chromium, germ cells, mice


8. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2943-2948 (2011)

Seasonal testicular changes during the annual reproductive cycle of indian flying fox, Pteropus giganteus giganteus (Brunnich)
Deshmukh, G.D. and Dhamani, A.A.

Department of Zoology, N. H. College, Bramhapuri 441206, Maharashtra.E. mail: gdnagbhir72@gmail.com

Abstract : Seasonal variations in histological structure of testis of adult male flying fox, Pteropus giganteus giganteus was investigated. The animals were collected from the Bramhapuri forest range of Maharashtra. Histological changes in seminiferous epithelium and Leydig cell were correlated with the changes in the plasma testosterone level observed during different seasons. Two peaks of testosterone in these animals show different biological response. Lower peak of testosterone during June-July coincides with the active spermatogenesis only, while higher peak during November corresponds with active spermatogenesis and secretary activity of accessory sex glands.

Key words: Pteropus giganteus giganteus, Testosterone, Spermatogenesis


9. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2949-2953 (2011)

Early flowering somaclonal variant of an endangered forest tree species Wrightia tinctoria r. Br: A potential ethno medicinal plant

Kairamkonda, M., Godishala, V. and Nanna, R.

Plant Biotechnology Research Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009,
Andhra Pradesh. E. mail: swamynr.dr@gmail.com

Abstract: Early flowering somaclonal variant of Wrighita tinctoria R.Br is reported. Zygotic embryos were germinated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (0.5- 2.5 mg/L) of IAA. In vitro germinated plantlets were acclimatized, transferred to research field and maintained under shady conditions. Survival rate was recorded to be 75 %. One plant among the fifty regenerated ones was found to be flowering within 11 months of transplantation which is the first record of early flowering in Wrightia tinctoria.

Key words: Wrightia tinctoria, Zygotic embryo culture, Somaclonal variant, Early flowering


10. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2955-2959 (2011)

Histopathological and serum enzyme alterations in rats treated with camptothecin and prophylactic effect of α-tocopherol

Singh, K., Kudale, H. and Marar, T.

Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil University, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400 614; E. mail: skanchan19@gmail.com,

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of change in level of serum marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation caused by camptothecin (CPT) administration and to determine whether vitamin E possess potentiality of reversing or suppressing CPT induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. CPT is a cytotoxic quinoline alkaloid which inhibits the DNA enzyme topoisomerase I. This alkaloid reveals remarkable anticancer property in preliminary clinical trials but also low solubility and high adverse drug reaction. It induces cell damage by producing free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Liver damage was assessed by investigating serum marker enzymes like AST, ALT, LDH and ALP and was correlated to the histopathological observations in the liver. Treatment with CPT increased the levels of lipid peroxides, AST, ALT and LDH activity but decreased serum ALP. Pathological alterations were also observed in histology of the liver tissue with CPT treatment. Co-treatment of α-tocopherol significantly prevented the CPT induced pathological alterations in liver tissues with a decrease serum marker enzyme activity and a significant increase in antioxidant levels. The data obtained in the present study suggest that α-tocopherol afford significant protective effect over drug induced oxidative damage in rat liver.

Key words: Serum enzymes, Camptothecin, Vitamin E


11. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2961-2965 (2011)

Rapid in vitro multiplication and shoots regeneration from nodal explants of rose

Hegde, V., Kag, B., Sathyanarayana, B.N. and Sharath. R.

Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Science, GKVK, Bangalore
560 065. E. mail: bharat_tmn@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation was established using shoot tip and nodal explants from field grown mature plants. A high frequency of shoot proliferation (multiple shoots) was achieved on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of cytokinin (0.2-3.5 mg/l) and adenine sulphate (5-35 mg/l). Maximum number of shoots per explant (25-30) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l BAP + 0.2 mg/l Kinetin and 25 mg/l adenine sulphate. Among two types of explants (shoot tip and nodal explants) used in this study, nodal explants showed better response in respect of multiple shoot production.

Key words: Shoot regeneration, Nodal explants, Rose


12. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2967-2971 (2011)

Catecholate type of siderophore production by Enterobacter sp. UB4 isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Alfalfa plant

Bharucha, U.D., Prajapati, V.S., Patel, K.C. and Trivedi, U.B.

B. R. D. School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh vidyanagar- 388120, Gujarat
E. mail: ubt.spu@gmail.com

Abstract: Siderophore production by Enterobacter sp. UB4, a natural isolate from rhizospheric soil of a medicinally and agriculturally important alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant has been studied in the present work. The Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assay was performed to detect and quantify the siderophores during their production phase in succinate medium. Results of Arnow's assay revealed it to be a catecholate type of siderophore. Ethyl acetate extraction yielded 820 mg/L of siderophore which showed maximum absorption at 210 nm during UV-Visible spectroscopy. HPLC and FTIR analysis of the purified siderophore further confirmed its catecholate nature.

Key words: Enterobacter sp., Siderophore, Catecholate


13. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2973-2976 (2011)

Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of metformin and pioglitazone in combined dosage form.

Manikanta Kumar, A. and Alagawadi, K.R.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, KLE's College of Pharmacy, KLE University, Nehru
Nagar, Belgaum 590010. E. mail: kumarmanikanta8@gmail.com

Abstract: In this paper we are presenting development and validation of an improved method for the simultaneous estimation of metformin hydrochloride (MET) and pioglitazone (PIO) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A Phenomenex, Onyx monolithic C18 column (150x4.6mm) was used with a mobile phase containing a mixture of 25 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate (PH 3.65 with orthophosphoric acid): acetonitrile (60: 40 % v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 230 nm, and eluted at 2.17min (MET) and 6.21min (PIO). The pooled % RSD for repeatability of the percentage amount recovered for MET and PIO were found to be 0.42 and 0.315. The percentage recovery of the trueness for MET was 99.87% ± 1.5 and for PIO was 99.22% ± 1.03 (n=3). The method was successfully used to analyze fixed-dose tablets samples of MET and PIO.

Key words:Metformin Hydrochloride, Pioglitazone, Densitometry and validation


14. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2977-2980 (2011)

Effect of dietary supplementation on electrolyte profile and lymphocyte proliferation during heat stress in buffaloes

Sunil Kumar, B.V. and Kataria, M.

Division of Biochemistry, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P.
E. mail: drbvskumar@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Heat stress in large farm ruminants is a problem of great concern among livestock farmers during summer and post-summer months. Serum electrolyte concentrations, in particular Na+, K+ and Cl- are found to be reduced during heat stress. Heat stress also causes a decline in immunological response in animals. In this study, effect of supplementing salts, ascorbic acid polyphosphate and zinc oxide on heat stress was studied in buffaloes. Adult Murrah buffaloes of either sex were randomly divided into 2 groups viz. control and experimental. The latter was supplemented with sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate, ascorbic acid polyphosphate and zinc oxide. All the animals were exposed to induced heat stress with two experimental treatments: hot-dry and hot-humid, in psychrometric chamber, 4 hours daily for 10 days. Blood was collected on day 1 and 10 of treatment. The concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride was estimated in serum. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed in blood. Heat stress caused a decrease in serum electrolyte level while dietary supplementation resulted in moderation of the serum electrolyte profile. Dietary supplementation also caused an increase in lymphoproliferative response to con A. results from this study indicated that supplementation of ascorbate and zinc in addition to electrolytes relieves the animals of stress caused by electrolyte deficit and boosts cell mediated immunity.

Key words: Heat stress, Buffalo, Electrolytes


15. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 11(3): 2981-2984 (2011)

Assesment of phytochemicals of Withania somnifera on clinically isolated pathogens

Pankaj Kumar, K., Roy, A. and Singh, N.B.

P. G. Department of Biotechnology, T. M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur 812 007.
E. mail: pankajeworld@gmail.com

Abstract: Withania somnifera has potent medicinal properties and extensively used as traditional herbs. The results showed that Withania somnifera has potent antibacterial activity. .The ethanolic extract of leaves of Withania somnifera shows maximum inhibitory effect on different bacterial strain than aqueous and other extracts. Ethanolic extracts of Withania somnifera possess great inhibitory effect for gram positive and gram negative bacteria. These all findings supports the results of Withania somnifera that contains significant phytochemicals which are responsible for antibacterial activity were extracted in ethanol properly. They form a mucilaginous layer around the urinary tract membrane and inhibit the invading of bacterial strains and protect it. The results showed that Withania somnifera has phytoconstituents responsible for antimicrobial activity and it could be screened out by Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and purify up to High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Key words: Withania somnifera, Phytochemials


 
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