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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
1. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 2985-2990 (2012)
 
Chromosomal defects in uterine fibroids
 
Veronica, M.,Lakshmi, R.K., Venkateshwari, A., Mamata, D.and Pratibha, N. 
 
Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad, 500 007, Andhra Pradesh
 
Abstract: Uterine fibroids are benign (noncancerous) masses of muscle tissue that enlarge and/or distort the uterus and originate from the smooth muscle cells within the myometrium. Clinically apparent in 25% of women, several predisposing factors have been identified that include age (late reproductive years), nulliparity, and obesity. Fibroids cause excessive menorrhagia, severe abdominal pain, urinary incontinence and constipation; develop as subclinical (asymptomatic) pelvic masses. Fibroids are associated with infertility and if present during pregnancy may contribute to spontaneous abortion, premature labor or dystocia. About 40% of Uterine Leiomyomas show non- random cytogenetic abnormalities. In the present article we report 3 different cytogenetic abnormalities which have led to the disease symptoms. 1) A translocation involving 12 and 7 chromosome may lead to the dysregulation of decorin gene expression leading to fibrillar instability thus ensuring unchecked growth of connective tissue; 2) Another case involves 15p arm duplication. 15th chromosome is an acrocentric chromosome and harbors genes responsible for RNA expression. It is also worth noting that this region is rich in tandem repeats. Gene localized at this area is the RNR3 gene wherein its overexpression can render it cancerous, 3) The third case represents a mosaic karyotype wherein a set of cells harvested showed the complete set of chromosomes and another set showed deletion of one of the X chromosomes. 
 
Key words: Chromosomal defects, Uterine fibroids
 
2.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 2991-2997 (2012)
 
Modulatory effects of diosgenin and farnesol on cell surface integrity during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis
 
Rajalingam, K., Sivakumar, K., and Suresh, K.
 
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Tamilnadu,
E. mail: suraj_cks@yahoo.co.in
 
Abstract: Glycoproteins and proteoglycans are important groups of compounds involved in the cellular function. They play significant roles in cells surface properties, tumorigenesis and mediators of immunological specificity. The aim of the present study is to examine the modulatory effects of diosgenin and farnesol on cell surface integrity during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis. The oral carcinoma was induced in hamster buccal pouches, by painting with 0.5% DMBA thrice per week for 14 weeks. We observed 100% tumor formation with marked abnormalities of glycoconjugates status in tumor bearing animals as compared to control animals. Oral administration of diosgenin [80mg/kg bw (diosgenin was suspended in 1% gum acacia)] and farnesol [45mg/kg bw (farnesol was dissolved in corn oil)] to DMBA painted hamsters on alternative days for 14 weeks, declined the tumor formation as well as protected the cell surface integrity in DMBA induced animals. In accordance with these finding, there is a substantial evidence that support the cancer preventive potentials and efficacy of diosgenin and farnesol on DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.
 
Key words: Diosgenin, Farnesol, Oral carcinogenesis, DMBA
 
3.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 2999-3002 (2012)
 
Anti-clastogenic potential of lupeol against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced clastogenesis
 
Palanimuthu, D., Manoharan, S., Baskaran, N., Rajasekaran, D., Srinivasan, R. and Shamsul Afaq Wani
 
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University,
Annamalai nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu. E. Mail: sakshiman@rediffmail.com
 
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-clastogenic potential of lupeol by measuring the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) treated golden Syrian hamsters . Higher frequency of MnPCEs accompanied with marked chromosomal aberrations was noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral pretreatment of lupeol for 5 days at a dose of 50mg/kg bw to hamsters treated with DMBA significantly inhibited MnPCEs frequency and protected chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells. The present study thus suggests that lupeol exhibited potent anti-clastogenic efficacy against DMBA-induced genotoxicity.
 
Key words: Micronucleus, Chromosomal aberrations, DMBA, Genotoxicity.
 
4.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3003-3008 (2012)
 
Analysis of phylogeny and evolutionary divergence of cytochrome b sequence of Pontoscolex corethrurus
 (muller, 1857) from Kolli hills (A part of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India)
 
Sathis Kumar, K. and Neelanarayanan, P.
 
Centre for Eco-Friendly Agro-Technologies (Vermibiotechnology) Research Department of Zoology,
 Nehru Memorial College (Autonomous), Puthanampatti 621 007 Tiruchirappalli  Tamil Nadu.
 E. Mail: kasathis28@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller, 1857) belongs to the family Glossoscolecidae which is cosmopolitan in distribution. Presence of this animal in Kolli hills a part of Eastern Ghats, located in Namakkal District of Tamil Nadu, India is reported for the first time. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene is widely used in systematic studies to resolve divergences at many taxonomic levels. The collected P. corethrurus were subjected to sequence analysis of cytochrome b gene and the same was deposited in GenBank and an accession number has been assigned for the same (Accession No. JN793526). The data was further analysed for the construction of neighbour joining tree and to infer the evolutionary divergence among the maximum identical sequences retrieved from NCBI GenBank through BLAST search. The results of the search revealed that the cytochrome b sequence of P. corethrurus has not been sequenced earlier from any part of this world. It is obvious that the cytochrome b sequence of P. corethrurus may be used for the identification of this species reported from any part of the world through BLAST analysis if the identical sequences are submitted to GenBank in future.        
               
Key words: Cytochrome b. Pontoscolex corethrurus, Kolli hills, Lateritic semi evergreen forest
 
5.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3009-3013 (2012)
 
Biochemical and hematological investigations in pregnancy induced hypertension
 
Andrews, L., Haridas, N., Vaishnav, S.and Desai, K.
 
Department of Biochemistry, C. U. Shah Medical College, Surendranagar, Gujarat.
E. Mail: liggyand@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Hypertensive disorders complicate about 6 - 8.0 % of all pregnancies. Currently there is no predictive test for this condition and no cure other than the delivery of the baby. Incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) in our study was 14.4%, with maximum cases of emergency admission (83.9%), low socioeconomic group (83.6%), illiterate (57.4%) and who had not taken any antenatal care (61.7%). Significantly high levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (P<0.000) and serum uric acid (P<0.000) and a low level of serum calcium (P<0.000) was seen in eclamptic women in comparison to mild PIH, severe PIH and normal pregnant women.
Key words: Pregnancy induced hypertension, Eclampsia
 
6. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3015-3020 (2012)
 
Acute toxicity and ecophysiological responses of Paramecium caudatum to azadirachtin
 
Amanchi, N.R. and Raja, S.S.
 
Protozoology and Environmental Toxicology Unit, Department of Zoology, Nizam College (A), Basheer
Bagh, Hyderabad - 500001, Andhra Pradesh. E. mail: nageswar_ou@yahoo.co.in
 
Abstract: In the present study acute toxicity effects of a widely used botanical insecticide, azadirachtin on survival, morphology and certain physiological activities of a protozoan ciliate paramecium caudatum were investigated. Ciliates have remained as models in pre molecular biology, molecular biology and post molecular biology era due to ubiquitous nature, speeds of analysis, faster generation time and genomic similarity to highest organism. In acute toxicity experiments, a sudden change in mobility of organisms was among the first observable modification to occur when the organisms were exposed to 50ppm and above concentrations of azadirachtin. In first few minutes, rocking movements were observed, which were progressively retarded and in another 15 minutes their ciliary movements were totally arrested. Cells aggregated around the corners of cavity block and the shape, size and length of Paramecia were also reduced prominently. Acute toxicity studies showed necrotic cell death with typical features like blackening of cytoplasm, blebbing and leaking of internal contents. The calculated LC50 value of azadirachtin against mortality curve for 3hrs exposure to Paramecium caudatum was 239.44 ± 13.94ppm. Significant changes in phagocytosis, contractile vacuole activity and macronuclear shape were observed in concentration dependent manner. The findings of the present study highlight the potential of paramecia as an alternative model for ecotoxicology studies.
 
Key words: Paramecium caudatum, Azadirachtin
 
7.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3021-3028 (2012)
 
Epidemiological pattern and detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in foods of animal origin: A review
 
Arora, D., Mehta, N.and Saini, R.
 
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Sciences, LLRUVAS,
Hisar; 125 001. E. mail: nmvets220@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Yersinia enterocolitica is an important organism causing yersiniosis in animals and human beings. It has an immense zoonotic importance. The most common mode of transmission is through faecal oral route. The detection of Y. enterocolitica in foods of animal origin like meat and milk is gaining importance from health and trade point of view. Many detection techniques like culture methods on selective and differential media have been used earlier but novel methods like serological and molecular techniques are now widely being used because of authentic and rapid screening.
 
Key words: Yersinia enterocolitica
 
8.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3029-3036 (2012)
 
Characterization and analysis of antibacterial activity of two fresh water Actinobacteria
 
Madan Mohan, G., Vijay Bhasker, A.and Singara Charya, M.A.
 
Department of Industrial Microbiology, S.R.R Govt. Degree and P.G College, Karimnagar (AP).
E. Mail: madanmaddy3@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Twenty four isolates of actinomycetes were collected from water samples of three fresh water systems of Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India. Among, eight isolates showed good antagonistic activity against test bacteria. Two of these eight isolates (LAM1 and LAM2) were found to produce wide spectrum of antibacterial agents. These most potent producer strains were selected and identified. The cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the isolates identified as the strain LAM1 of the genus Streptomyces and the strain LAM2 as a member of the group Micromonospora. The extraction of the fermentation broth of these highly active fresh water actinobacteria resulted in the isolation of two major antibacterial compounds which were active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The physico-chemical characteristics of the antibacterial compounds and their spectral analysis are presented.
 
Key words: Fresh water Actinobacteria, Spectral analysis
 
9.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3037-3042 (2012)
 
Production and characterization of thermostable alpha amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus NCIM 2922
 
Talekar, S. and Patil, J.
 
Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kolhapur Institute of Technology’s College of Engineering,
 Kolhapur- 416234, Maharashtra. E. mail: sachintalekar7@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Production of thermostable alpha amylase by Bacillus stearothermophilus NCIM 2922 has been investigated using starch as a carbon source. The effects of pH, temperature and concentration of starch on alpha amylase production were examined. The maximum production of alpha amylase was obtained with temperature 50°C, pH 7 and 0.3% (w/v) starch. The growth kinetic study indicates μmax, Ks, Td and Yx/s were 0.19/h, 0.78 g/l, 3.64 h and 0.4g cell/g starch, respectively. Optimum activity of partially purified alpha amylase was observed at 80°C and pH 6.5. The kinetic parameters Kand Vmax, of alpha amylase were 1.7 mg/ml and 112.8 μmole/min, respectively. Irreversible thermal inactivation of the enzyme was studied at different temperatures. The values of inactivation rate constant (Ki) and half life (t1/2) at 80, 90, 100°C were 0.32/h, 0.37/h, 0.75/h and 129.93 min, 112.37 min, 55.2 min respectively. The activation energy of irreversible thermal inactivation of alpha amylase was found to be   37.57kJ/mol.
 
Key words:Thermostable alpha amylase, Bacillus stearothermophilus
 
10.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3043-3048 (2012)
 
Gross pathology and histopathology of tuberculosis
 
Shettar, M., Anjan Kumar, K.R. and Nalini, T.S.
 
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College, Bangalore 560 024. E. Mail: shettardr@gmail.com
 
Abstract: The current research work was carried out with the objective of evaluating gross and histopathological changes in different organs due to tuberculosis in 15 tuberculin test positive animals. Out of fifteen cases 12 animals revealed pulmonary form of tuberculosis, 01 with generalized form and 2 animals showed no observable lesions. The frequency of caseative lesions in affected animals were 73.73% (11/15) in bronchial lymphnode, 66.67% (10/15) in lungs, 40.0% (06/15) in mediastinal lymphnode. The remaining organs such as prescapular, retropharyngeal, mesenteric lymphnode, intestine and liver showed lesion at 6.67% (1/15). In histopathological study, granulomatous inflammation was observed in all affected organ characterized by focal or multifocal areas of central caseation with or without calcification, surrounded by a zone of inflammatory cells consisting of lymphoid cells, epitheloid cells and Langhan’s type of giant cells.
 
 Key words: Bovine Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium, Histopathology
 
11.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3049-3053 (2012)
 
Histological studies on the organs of upper respiratory tract from nostril to larynx in Black Bengal goat (Capra hircus)
 
Sinha, M.K., Ray, S., Das, P. and Choudhary, R.K.
 
Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, 37, K. B. Sarani, Kolkata 700037
 
Abstract: In the present study tissue samples were collected from external nares, nasal cavity, nasopharynx and larynx of six healthy adult Black Bengal goat. The samples were routinely prepared for histological observation. The external nares, and nasopharynx were lined by stratified squamous epithelium, and nasal cavity was ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Numerous hair follicles were identified at the outer border of the external nares. Nasal epithelium showed several cell types including ciliated cell, secreting cell, brush cell and basal cell. The nasal glands were serous and mucous type and solitary lymph nodes were identified in the propria. Epiglottis was made up of elastic cartilage where as others was made up of hyaline cartilage. Test buds were observed in all laryngeal cartilage except in the cricoid cartilage. The cricoid cartilage appeared in the form of continuous plate in contrast to small plates in others. No lymphonodular tissue was found at the base of epiglottis.
 
Key word: Respiratory tract, Black Bengal goat, Histology
 
12. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3055-3060 (2012)
 
Evaluation of estrogenic activity of various extracts of Cuminum cyminumseeds in female rats
 
Patil, S. R. and Patil, M.B.
 
KLE University College of Pharmacy, Belgaum, Karnataka, Karnataka. E. mail: srpatil78@gmail.com
 
Abstract: The various extracts of Cuminum cyminum Linn (Umbelliferae) seeds were investigated for estrogenic activity in immature female albino rats. A comparison was made between the extracts and a standard drug, diethylstilbestrol (1.5 mg/kg b.w). Theaqueous, ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts were obtained by a simple maceration method. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study as per OECD guidelines i.e. 200 mg/kg. Estrogenic activity was assessed by taking uterine wet weight, vaginal epithelial cell cornification, histoarchitecture (uterotrophic changes), such as uterine diameter, thickness of endometrium and on some of the estrogen dependent biochemical parameters in the uterus. Oral administration of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts cause significant (p<0.001) increase in the uterine weight and cornification of vaginal epithelial cells. It also causes significant increase in uterine diameter, thickness of endometrium when compared with those of control rats. The uterotrophic potency was less than that of diethylstilbestrol. There was also significant increase in uterine content of glucose, cholesterol, alkaline phosphate when compared with those of control rats.
 
Key words: Cuminum cyminum, Estrogenic, Diethylstilbestrol, Uterotrophic
 
13.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3061-3067 (2012)
 
Isolation and molecular characterization of avirulence gene from Indian isolates of Fusarium oxysporum
 F. sp. Lycopersici
 
Parmar, P., Gandhi, M. and Subramanian, R.B.
 
B R D School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallbh Vidhya Nagar 125 001 (Gujarat)
 E. Mail: asp.fus@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Characterization of avirulence is crucial to unveil mechanism of resistance by signal transduction process induced after pathogen infection. Isolation of Avirulence genes (Avr3 and Avr1) by PCR based method showed an amplicon of 175 bp for Avr 3 gene and 459 bp for Avr 1 gene in both the fungal cultures, indicating the presence of both the genes in race I isolates. Identification of Avirulence protein (Avr1) by one dimensional and two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that this protein is of 23 kDa in weight with a pI value of 8.5-9.0, secreted in xylem sap of susceptible variety only after infection. The identification of SIX4 protein of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causing fusarium wilt in susceptible tomato plant can be applied for further studies to identify avirulence-R gene intercation.
 
Key words: Avirulence protein, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Tomato
 
14.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3069-3074 (2012)
               
 In vitro and in vivo studies on induction of multiple shoots and regeneration in cotton (G. arboreum L.
 and G. barbadense L.)
 
Sangannavar, P.A., Hegde, P.M., Choudki, V.M., Savita, S.G., Vanti, G.L., Barkeer, S., Abdul Nayeem., Vamadevaiah, H.M., Khadi, B.M. and Katageri, I.S.
 
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agriculture College Dharwad, University of Agricultural
Sciences, Dharwad  580 005, Karnataka. E. mail: ikatageri@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: A study on induction of cotyledonary axile shoots and regeneration by preventing shoot apical dominance has been reported in Gossypium arboreum   (DLSa-17) and G. barbadense (SB(YF)-425). Maximum number of cotyledonary axile buds were observed in SAM prevented plants which were grown in basal MS broth than plants grown in different combination of BAP, TDZ in in vitro and combination of NAA and BAP in in vivo condition. None of the growth regulator concentrations gave better response than basal MS broth in inducing cotyledonary axile shoots. Trimming at shoot apices to expose corpus layer reduced regenerability of shoot apices in in vitro treatment.
 
Key words: Shoot apical meristem, Axilary shoot, Genetic transformation, Cotton
 
15. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3075-3080 (2012)
 
Efficient in vitro regeneration in Pigeonpea from cotyledonary node explants
 
Kaur, A., Devi, R. and Dev, A.
 
School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004.
E. mail: ajinder100@gmail.com
 
Abstract: A reproducible method of direct and multiple shoot induction has been developed in pigeonpea using variety AL 201. Cotyledonary nodal explants excised from 5 and 8 day old in vitro raised seedlings were cultured on basal MS, MS + 3 mg/lBAP + 1 mg/lKin and MS + 3 mg/lBAP + 1 mg/lKin + 0.2% w/v charcoal media. Data were recorded on per cent responding cultures, average number of shoots and shoot length per explant. Eight-day-old explants responded better than 5 day old explants for multiple shoot induction. The average number of shoots and shoot length per explant were highest (3.19 and 11.27 cm, respectively) on medium containing charcoal. Shoot elongation and rooting in 80% of shoots was obtained on charcoal medium itself. After hardening, the plantlets were transferred to soil in poly bags and kept in the glasshouse. Thus this direct plant regeneration system so developed can be used as a base line for genetic transformation of pigeonpea.
 
Key words: Shoot regeneration, Cajanus cajan L., Cotyledonary nodal
 
16. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3081-3087  (2012)
 
Morphological and histological studies of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. explants in callus culture
 
Patil, D.A., Patil, A.G., Koli, S.P. and Naresh Chandra
 
Department of Botany (Herbal Sciences), Birla College, Kalyan 421 304,
E. mail: drdarshanapatil@rediffmail.com
 
Abstract: Cardiospermum halicacabum L. is an important medicinal twining herb belonging to the family sapindaceae. Callus cultures were obtained from leaves, cotyledon, hypocotyl, epicotyl and radicle explants from in vitro grown seedlings of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. inoculated on MS and B5 media containing various concentrations of 2,4- D (0.5 - 2.5 mg/l) and BAP (0.5 - 2.5 mg/l). The media and growth regulators stimulated various types of calli. Pale yellow and brown coloured friable callus was obtained on MS and B5 media supplemented with various concentrations of 2, 4 – D from radicle explants; whereas hypocotyl and epicotyl showed pale yellow and cream coloured good amount of compact and friable callus respectively. The leaf explant demonstrated direct rhizogenesis on B5 medium fortified with BAP (0.5 - 2.5 mg/l) whereas hypocotyl showed compact green coloured callus. The histological studies gave an idea of xylem elements and nodules of meristemoids in callus sections. Iodine staining exhibited a strong starch accumulation in callus tissues and in prenodular structures.
       
Key words: Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Callus culture
 
17.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3089-3094 (2012)
 
Production of byssus protein from in vitro cultures of isolated byssus gland cells of green mussel
Mytilus viridis
 
Pithawala, K. and Patel, M.
 
Department of Biology, Gujarat Arts and Science College, Ellis-Bridge, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
E. mail: kespithawala@yahoo.co.in
 
Abstract: This study reports a method for dissociating the gland cells actively involved in production of byssus and subsequently culturing them in different media. Of the two methods used for dissociation, physical method was better than the chemical method. The cells dissociated by physical method showed more viability by Trypan blue staining than those of chemically dissociated cells. When subjected to observation for their best growth and possible secretion of byssus protein under in vitro condition it was observed that cells could be best cultured in Nutrient mixture F12 (HAM) and MEM-Eagle Joklik medium. These cells also elaborated fibrous proteins after 6-7 days when supplemented with 0.5% artificial sea salt. Primary culture of byssus gland cells showed more than 75% viability even after 72 hours
 
Key words: Byssus gland, Mytilus viridis
 
18.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3095-3102 (2012)
 
Optimal concentrations of selective agent ‘kanamycin’ for use during transformation of Saccharum officinarum L.
 
Kaur, A., Manchanda, P., Gill, M.S. and Gosal, S.S.
 
School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab.
E. mail: ajinder100@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Attempts were made to find out the antibiotic ‘kanamycin’ dose(s) that would kill all the calli, leaf segments and shoots of three sugarcane cvs. (CoJ 83, CoJ 85 and Co 89003) as that dose is required for use in selection step of genetic transformation. For this, kanamycin was added at different concentrations viz., 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/l in the medium. To work out optimum kanamycin dose for selection of transformed cells, the non-transformed calli were grown on MS + 2,4-D (2.5 mg/l) + Kin (0.5 mg/l) medium supplemented with kanamycin. Likewise, the spindle leaf segments were grown on MS + NAA (5 mg/l) + Kin (0.5 mg/l) + kanamycin medium for finding the suitable antibiotic dose that can be used for selecting putative transgenic segments. For finding optimum kanamycin level for selection of putative transformed shoots, the normal shoots were cultured on MS + NAA (3 mg/l) + Kin (0.5 mg/l) + kanamycin medium. All the cultures were incubated at 25 ± 2°C for 4 weeks. In case of CoJ 83 and Co 89003, 50 mg/l kanamycin killed all the calli and leaf segments, whereas for CoJ 85 calli and leaf segments, 45 mg/ldose was found to be optimum. As far as screening of the transgenic shoots of the 3 varieties is concerned, 50 mg/lkanamycin restricted chlorophyll development in the leaves of normal shoots, and thus found suitable for use during selection. The optimum doses of kanamycin were validated in the actual genetic transformation experiments.
 
Key words: Kanamycin, Saccharum officinarum L.
 
19.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3103-3108 (2012)
 
Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis in maize (Zea mays L.)
 
Sharma, S., Sandhu, M.K., Kaur, P., Kaur, A. and Gosal, S.S.
 
School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab.
E. mail: manpreet.sandhu81 @gmail.com
 
 Abstract: Tissue culture was initiated in a maize inbred line LM13 using four different explants viz. immature inflorescence, nodal sections, immature embryos and mature grains. These were cultured on nine different media compositions based on MS salts containing different concentrations and combinations of auxins (2, 4-D, picloram and NAA) and cytokinins (BAP and kinetin). The effect of antibiotic (cefotaxime), silver nitrate, proline and casein hydrolysate was also investigated. In addition, two carbon sources, sucrose and maltose at different concentrations (3%, 6% and 9%) were also tried. After 3 weeks of incubation at 25 ± 2°C temperature in dark, immature inflorescences and nodal sections showed the formation of watery and non-embryogenic calli on all media combinations tried. In case of immature embryos, pale and compact embryogenic callus was observed after 5 weeks of culturing on MS media supplemented with 2, 4-D (2.5 mgl-1) + picloram (10.0 mgl-1) + sucrose (6%) solidified with agar (8 gl-1), while mature grains exhibited embryogenesis on MS media containing picloram (10.0 mgl-1) + BAP   (3.0 mgl-1) + sucrose (6%) solidified with agar (8 gl-1), after 6 weeks of incubation. Somatic embryogenesis in callus cultures was observed to be enhanced by using proline (500 mgl-1), casein hydrolysate (500 mgl-1) and silver nitrate (10 mgl-1), whereas, no such effect was observed with cefotaxime. Out of the two carbon sources tested, sucrose was found to be better for maize tissue culture.
 
Key words: Somatic embryogenesis, Zea mays L., Immature embryos
 
20.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3109-3112 (2012)
 
Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork samples by enrichment methods
 
Arora, D., Singh, Y.,Ashok Kumar and Mehta, N.
 
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, LLR University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar 125 004. E mail: devanarora7@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Yersinia enterocolitica has emerged as an important food borne enteroinvasive human pathogen with a global distribution. It is known to cause variety of gasterointestinal disorders, especially in children below 7 years of age. The pig is the only well recognized animal reservoir of human types of Y. enterocolitica. In the present study, 69 pork samples including 23 each from pig tongue, pig lymphoid tonsils, and ground pork were processed for isolation of Y. enterocolitica by cold broth enrichment and direct broth enrichment in Tryptone Soya Broth and Modified Rappaport Broth. In both procedures, inoculum was subjected to alkali treatment in saline to inhibit the non-Yersinia organisms. Out of the 69 samples, 12 (17.69 %)  were found positive by both the culture methods including 3 (13.0 %) of pig tongue, 8 (34.78 %) of pig tonsil and 1 (4.35 %) of ground pork. Out of 12 positive samples, 6 (8.69 %) were isolated only by direct broth enrichment and 1 (1.44 %) only by cold broth enrichment and 5 (7.25 %) positive by both the methods. The number of pork samples positive for Y. enterocolitica by direct broth enrichment were more (11 -15.94 %) as compared with cold broth enrichment (6 - 8.69 %). The present investigation, thus, revealed that isolation rate of Y. enterocolitica from pork samples was better with direct broth enrichment than cold broth enrichment.
 
Key words: Yersinia enterocolitica, Ground pork,
 
21.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3113-3116 (2012)
 
Isolation and characterization of alkaline phosphatase (ec.3.1.3.1) from cultured and wild African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
 
Raimi, O.G., Hammed, A.M., Adeola, S.A. and  Seriki, A.G.
 
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University,
P.O. Box 0001, LASU Post Office, Ojo, Lagos Nigeria. E mail: wale.raimi@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity was determined in different tissue homogenates (Liver, stomach, muscle and bone) of cultured and wild African mud Catfish (Clarias geriepinus). The stomach was found to have the highest activity of alkaline phosphatase enzyme. The Km and Vmax for the stomach ALP (SALP) were estimated to be 0.011 mM and 0.066 mmole/min/ml respectively for the cultured sample and 0.039 mM and 0.173 mmole/min/ml respectively for the wild sample. The pH optimum of the enzyme for the categories of fishes was found to be 10. Metals such as Mg2+ and Ca2+ enhanced enzyme activity but have an inhibitory effect at concentration above 0.10 mM. The highest activity of the enzyme in the stomach suggests that most of the organic phosphates in the species are hydrolysed principally in this organ.
 
Key words: Alkaline phosphatase, Clarias gariepinus
 
22.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3117-3123 (2012)
 
Effect of salivariadenectomy on the development and testicular functions in mice
 
Bodare, R.D., Pillai, M.M. and Mane, A.B.
 
P. G. Department of Zoology, S. G. M. College, Karad 415 124; E. mail: bodare_62@rediffmail.com
 
Abstract: In the present investigation, the effect of salivariadenectomy on the testis of mice with respect to various parameters like histology, estimation of protein and lipid, spermatogenesis and fertility test was studied. For this purpose, male mice of 20 days old were subjected to sublingualectomy sialoadenectomy and salivariadenectomy. The control group of the same age were sham operated and they were sacrificed at the age of 45, 60 and 90 days. The sublingualectomy includes removal of sublingual gland, sialoadenectomy means removal of submandibular gland and salivariadenectomy means removal of both the glands. The study report showed that there was adverse change in the histological structure of testis, decline in the protein and lipid content, spermatogenesis was badly affected and fertility rate was reduced in the all operated groups as compared to control groups.
 
 Key words: Salivariadenectomy, Testis , Spermatogenesis,
 
23.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 12(1) 3125-3131 (2012)
                               
Effect of anti diabetic powder (fenugreek leaves + bitter gourd) and green tea on blood sugar status of diabetic patient
 
Jadeja, G. and Katwala, R.
 
Smt. Kamlaben P. Patel College of Home Science, Anand People’s Medicare Society, Opp.  New Bus Station, Anand 388 001, Gujarat. E. mail: jadejagayatree@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes – is a group of metabolic disease in which a person has high blood sugar, because the body does not produce enough insulin. The present study was planned to perform in three parts to fulfill the objectives that is prevalence rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus in middle age group, Vadodara. Product preparation, supplementation, Bio-clinical assessment before and after supplementation to know it’s effectiveness on glucose present in the body and effect of pancreas to produce insulin in proper amount. Study indicated that most of the middle age persons have high blood glucose level. When they were supplemented with diabetic powder (fenugreek leaves + bitter gourd) and Green Tea i.e. for 30 days, their blood glucose level was reduced, demonstrating positive effect in middle age group. We can conclude that for prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus it is very essential to modify the meal pattern and increase the physical activity.
 
Key words: Diabetic powder, Green Tea, Diabetes Mellitus,

 
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