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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
1. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3779-3798 (2013)
 
Melatonin and ranitidine in combination protects against piroxicam-induced gastric ulceration in rats through antioxidant mechanism(s)
 
Basu, A., Ghosh, A. K., Mitra, E., Basu, M., Mukherjee, D., Dutta, M., Pattari, S. K., Roy, S. S., Chattopadhyay, A. and Bandyopadhyay, D.
 
Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Biology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, University College of Science and Technology, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700 009
E. mail: debasish63@gmail.com, Cell: 094330 72066
 
Abstract: The anti-ulcer effect of different doses of melatonin and ranitidine was studied, in separate experiments, against piroxicam-induced gastric ulceration in rats, with the intent of determining the minimum dose of each of the drugs at which neither of them were effective individually. Melatonin and ranitidine, both exert protection to the gastric mucosa individually, dose-dependently, by decreasing the piroxicam-induced oxidative stress in the gastric tissue. Our studies revealed that melatonin and ranitidine both at a dose of 20 mg/kg BW i.p., individually, could not protect the gastric tissue from being ulcerated. However, when rats were pre-treated with melatonin and ranitidine in combination, at the doses at which neither was effective individually, the combined therapy completely prevented ulcers following piroxicam treatment. Melatonin and ranitidine in combination ameliorated the oxidative stress induced in the gastric tissue due to piroxicam by preventing the alterations in the bio-markers of oxidative stress and the activities and levels of antioxidant enzymes. The biochemical analyses were supported by macroscopic and microscopic studies of gastric tissue. Thus, the combination seems to work synergistically to reduce piroxicam-induced gastric damage in rats, strongly indicating that it may be a safe gastro-protective co-therapy especially, in situations where the use of anti-inflammatory drugs is the only choice.
 
Key words: Antioxidant, Gastric ulceration, Melatonin, Oxidative stress.
 
2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3799-3804 (2013)
 
Immunohistochemical studies on VEGF, P53, BCL-2 and cytokeratin in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis
 
Sathiyapriya, J., Suresh, K. and Kannappan, N.
 
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology,Faculty of Science, Faculty of Engineering, Annamalai University,   Annamalai Nagar 608 002, E. mail: suraj_cks@yahoo.co.in.
 
Abstract: The modulating effect of fisetin was investigated on expression of apoptotic and anti apoptotic association proteins during 7,12-dimethyl benz[a] anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamster by painting with 0.5% DMBA three times per week for 14 weeks. The expression of p53, bcl-2, cytokeratin and VEGF were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining method. Over expression of mutant p53, bcl-2, cytokeratin and VEGF were observed in DMBA alone treated animals. Oral administration of fisetin at a dose of 10mg/kg b.wt to DMBA treated hamsters significantly reduced the incidence of oral tumour as well as suppressed the over expression of p53, bcl-2, cytokeratin and VEGF. Our results suggest that fisetin exerts anticancer properties by inhibiting the cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.
 
Key words: Oral cancer, Fisetin, DMBA,  p53, bcl-2
 
3. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3805-3808 (2013)
 
Electron microscopic radioautographic studies on cell aging of the eye
 
Nagata, T.
 
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Shinshu University School of Medicine,
Matsumoto 3908621, Japan. E-mail: nagatas@po.cnet.ne.jp
 
Abstract: The term “Cell Aging” initially means how the cells change due to their aging. It contains 2 meanings, one how a cell changes when it is isolated from original animals or plants such as in vitro cells in cell culture, while the other means how all the cells of an animal or a plant changes in vivo due to the aging of the individual animal or plant.This article deals with only the cell aging of animal cells in vivo, how the metabolism, i.e., incorporations and syntheses of respective nutrient precursors in various kinds of cells change due to the aging of individual experimental animals such as mice and rats by means of microscopic radioautography to localize the RI-labeled precursors. The incorporations and syntheses of various precursors for macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, glucides, lipids and others in various kinds of cells in the eye are reviewed referring many original papers already published from our laboratory during these 50 years since the late 20C to the early 21C.
 
Key words: Mouse Eye, Radioautography, Aging
 
4.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3809-3816 (2013)
 
Development of RAPD and specific scar markers for the identification of Pterocarpus santalinus. L.
 
Jhansi Rani, S. and Usha, R.
 
Department of Biotechnology, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, (Women’s University) Tirupati 517 508, Andhra Pradesh. E.mail: ushatirupathi@gmail.com, Cell: 09704704646
 
Abstract: Pterocarpus santalinus.L., popularly known as ‘Red Sanders’ is a member of the family of Fabaceae. It is an endangered and endemic taxon in the eastern ghats of India. Commonly, there are two types of plants. Commercially Quality plants have got more importance than Non Quality plants. Identification of Quality plants at seedling stage is very difficult, until it retains an age of about 25 years. Hence, it is essential to develop specific SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region) marker for identification of Quality plants at seedling stage. In the present study, eighty RAPD primers were screened, among them two primers i.e, OPA-4 and OPA-20, which gave unique band in Quality plants were selected. SCAR markers were created by cloning and sequencing the specific bands, and primers were designed to amplify the bands of 1400bp and 1000bp. PCRs were performed using the two pairs of SCAR primers (PTS-10 and RES-14). After conducting the experiments from mixed population at seedling stage single sharp 1kb band was obtained in all Quality plants with PTS-10 SCAR primer. In Non Quality plants amplification was not observed. Hence, it is feasible method for identifying Quality plants at seedling stage.
 
Key words: Pterocarpus santalinus, Quality plants identification
 
5.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3817-3828 (2013)
 
Protective effect of aqueous garlic extract against lead-induced cardiac injury in rats
 
Kilikdar, D.,Mukherjee, D., Dutta. M., Ghosh, A. K., Rudra, S.,Chandra, A. M. and Bandyopadhyay, D.
 
Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Biology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University College of Science and Technology, 92, APC Road, University of Kolkata 700 009. E. Mail: debasish63@gmail.com,  Cell: 09836035535
 
 
Abstract: The present study was aimed to examine whether administration of aqueous extract of the garlic (Allium sativum L.) do possess any protective effect against lead-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Male albino rats were used for present studies which were divided in to four groups; control, lead treated, aqueous extract protected and only aqueous extract treated (positive control). The rats were treated with lead acetate (LA) (15mg/kg body wt/day) intra-peritonially for seven consecutive days and the extract (50mg/kg body wt) was administered orally one hour prior to LA injection. Lead-induced heart damage was clearly evident from increased activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase1. An increased tissue level of lipid peroxidation as well as decreased reduced glutathione and total-thiol (SH) content along with significant changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase indicate development of oxidative stress due to LA treatment. Besides, increased activities of the pro-oxidant enzymes, enhanced formation of superoxide and hydroxyl radical further confirms elevated levels of oxidative stress following LA treatment. Lead acetate treatment also altered the activities of the enzymes of Kreb’s cycle. Tissue histomorphological and histochemical studies also showed considerable damage following LA treatment. All these changes were significantly protected when the rats were pre-treated with aqueous extract of the garlic. The present studies suggest that AGE may be beneficial in ameliorating lead-induced oxidative damage in the rat heart.
 
Key words: Cardiac toxicity, Lead acetate, Garlic extract, Oxidative stress.
               
6.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3829-3837 (2013)
 
Lead induces oxidative stress in rat heart and liver tissue homogenates: An in vitro study
 
Paul, S.,Ghosh, D.,Ghosh, A.K.,Mitra, E.,Dey, M., Chattopadhyay, A.and Bandyopadhyay, D.
 
Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Biology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta,
University College of Science and Technology, 92, APC Road, Kolkata 700 009.
E. mail: debasish63@gmail.com, Cell 09433072066
 
Abstract: Environmental lead toxicity is an old but persistent public health problem throughout the world and children are more susceptible to lead than adults because of their hand to mouth activity, increased respiratory rates and higher gastrointestinal absorption per unit body weight. The propensity of lead to catalyze oxidative reactions and generate reactive oxygen species has been demonstrated in multiple studies in vivo. Dose-response study of lead acetate on the biomarkers of oxidative stress i.e., levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH), activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) , and some pro oxidant enzymes i.e., xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) have been carried out in vitro in heart and liver tissues of male Wistar rats. The in vitro study provides us with a wide knowledge about the correlation of increased concentration of lead and the activities of the different enzymes which are related to the management of oxidative stress in the vital organs of the body.
 
Key words: Lead, Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species
 
7.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3839-3843 (2013)
 
Effect of cow urine on thyroid hormonal profile and thyroid status in male Wistar albino rats
 
Anaxee, B., Narayana Swamy, M. and Isloor, S.
 
Department of Veterinary Physiology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore 560 024, Karnataka.
 E. mail: mns263@yahoo.com
 
Abstract : Shushruta samhita and Charaka samhita, the two Indian epics, describe that the consumption of cow urine produces body warmth. In modern medical science, it is well established fact that the thyroid hormones are responsible for producing body warmth. Therefore, present study was planned to evaluate the effects of cow urine from Holstein Friesian cross breeds on the thyroid hormonal profile and thyroid status of male Wistar albino rats. Two months aged rats with the body weight ranging from 152.66 to 157.50 g were randomly divided into four groups. The fresh cow urine collected from cyclic cows at diestrus stage was administered orally with gavaging technique daily @ 10 ml/kg bw, 15 ml/kg bw, and 20 ml/kg bw to Group II, Group III and Group IV, respectively for a period of 60 days and the results were compared with Group I (control group gavaged with distilled water @ 10 ml/kg bw). There was significant increase (P<0.05) in the serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) in all the cow urine administered groups which could be due to good amount of iodine present in the cow urine which involved in the biosynthesis of triiodothyronine. Whereas, no significant changes were observed in the serum levels of thyroxine (T4) in cow urine administered rats compared to control group. The relative weight of thyroid gland in cow urine administered groups showed non-significant difference (P>0.05) compared to control group. Furthermore, the histology of thyroid gland on day 60, suggested that the thyroid gland activity was optimally stimulated by cow urine administration at the dose rate of 15 ml/kg and 20 ml/kg bw as evidenced by increased lymphocytic infiltration, cellular hypertrophy and desquamation of follicular cells. These results suggested that the oral administration of cow urine has thyroid stimulating effect and thereby emphasized the therapeutic value of urinary iodine present in the cow urine.
 
Key words: Cow urine, Thyroid status, Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine.
 
8.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3845-3849 (2013)
 
Postnatal development of thymus of khaki campbell duck (Anas platyrhynchos)
 
Kumar, P., Das, P., Minj, A.P., Ranjan, R. and Kumari, P.
 
Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Histology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery
Sciences, Kolkata 700037. E. mail: drparthawbuafs@gmail.com
 
Abstract: The present study was conducted on 1st to 4th week aged old Khaki Campbell ducks. The thymus was a paired pink coloured organ situated on either side of the neck along the jugular vein. There were 4-5 lobes on the right side and 5-6 lobes on the left side. The weight of the thymic lobules increased significantly according to the advancement of age and there was a positive correlation between the thymic lobules’ weight and body weight of ducks. Histologically the gland was surrounded by collagen and elastic tissues which invaded the gland as septa and divided the organ into lobules. The lobules were divided into cortex and medulla. The population of the cortical lymphocytes was more than that of the medulla. The medulla consisted of islands of reticular cells. Plasma cells and red blood cells were detected in the stroma from third week onwards.
 
Key words: Khaki Campbell ducks, Thymus development.
 
9.Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3851-3858 (2013)
 
Flavin mono nucleotide phosphatase from goat heart: A forgotten enzyme of an important metabolic pathway
 
Dey, M., Mukherjee, D.,Dutta, M.,Mallik, S., Ghosh, D., Ghosh, A.K., Chattopadhyay, A. and Bandyopadhyay, D.
 
Oxidative Stress and Free Radical Biology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta,
University College of Science and Technology, 92, APC Road, Kolkata 700 009.
E. mail: debasish63@gmail.com, Cell 09433072066
 
 
Abstract: Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in maintaining health in humans and animals. It is an easily absorbed micronutrient which exists in microorganisms & animal tissues mainly as coenzyme forms i.e. FMN & FAD. At least fifty five different enzymes in mammals including human need these co-enzymes for their activity, and, the level of FMN and FAD in the tissues at any given time may be an important determinant of tissue health. The present study describes the purification and kinetics of purified FMN-phosphatase from goat heart tissue which was found to be a very good source of the enzyme. Purification of FMN-phosphatase which hydrolyses FMN into riboflavin and inorganic phosphate was done by fractionation using ammonium sulfate followed by overnight dialysis of the fraction at 40oC. The dialysate was clarified through centrifugation in cold and was subjected to diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column chromatography. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme activity was found to be 5.0 and 40oC respectively. The properties of this purified enzyme preparation including Km and substrate specificity were studied. A single band was obtained with enzyme preparation on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and its amino acid sequence analysed.
 
Key words: Flavin mono nucleotide phosphatase, Goat heart
 
10.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3859-3864 (2013)
 
Isolation, expansion and characterization of rabbit fetal osteoblast cultured from rabbit calvarial
and limbbones
 
Pathak, R., Amarpal, Tiwari, A.K., Kurade, N.P. and Amarnath
 
Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, U. P.
E. mail: rekhasurgery@rediffmail.com, Cell: 09412645231
 
Abstract: Present study was conducted to isolate, culture and characterize rabbit fetal osteoblast. The osteoblasts were isolated from the calvarial bone, cervical vertebra and all the limbs of full term rabbit fetuses. The bone pieces were digested in trypsin (0.25 %) and cultured in DMEM medium. The cells were characterized based on the morphology (geimsa staining) and biological behavior. Staining for alkaline phosphatase activity was done. qRT-PCR was employed to detect the production of osteocalcin (osteoblast specific protein) and Alkaline phosphatase. Further, production of a mineralized matrix was positively detected by Von-kossa staining. The results show that the cells had the characteristics features of osteoblast showing specific morphology, positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production. There was also production of mineralized matrix after long term (27-32 Days) culture in DMEM without any induction media which was confirmed by Von Kossa staining of the cell cultures which revealed the formation of mineral-like nodules. This study established the isolation, proliferation capacity and the osteogenic potential of the rabbit fetal osteoblast cells which might be applicable to study the cell and biomaterial interactions and hence in successful production of viable, composite bone grafts for bone tissue engineering. 
 
Key words: Fetal osteoblast culture, Rabbit bones
 
11.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3865-3870 (2013)
 
Development of a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of infectious causes of bovine abortion
 
Sharma, A., Deka, D., Agrawal, R., Mitra, N. and Ramneek
 
School of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University,
 Ludhiana 141004 (Punjab). E.mail: akshsharma58@gmail.com. E. mail: 09463861100
 
Abstract: Abortion among dairy cows and buffaloes is one of the major causes of economic losses in the cattle industry. A variety of infectious agents have been reported to cause bovine abortion throughout the world. The current study describes the development of a multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of infectious causes of bovine abortion including BHV-1, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. Three set of primers were designed based on the gE gene of BHV-1, omp25 gene of Brucella spp. and Lipl32 gene of Leptospira spp. and could amplify a product size of 332bp, 233bp and 166bp, from BHV-1, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp respectively. The PCR and multiplex PCR assays were developed for individual as well as simultaneous detection of these organisms. The PCR assay was found to be highly sensitive and specific as it could detect a minimum of 0.5 ng of DNA of the target organisms without any nonspecific amplification of DNA from other related organisms. The newly developed multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay could detect BHV-1, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. simultaneously in a single reaction with high sensitivity and specificity. The mPCR assay could efficiently detect the target organisms in the field samples indicating its diagnostic potential of infectious causes of abortion.
 
Key words: Bovine abortion diagnosis.
 
12.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3871-3876 (2013)
 
Phytochemical composition and toxicological effectof sapindus laurifolius leaf extract  in wistar rats
 
Santhosh Kumar, C.N.  and Shridhar, N.B.
 
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024,
Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar-585 401, Karnataka.
E. mail: sridhar_vet@rediffmail.com, Cell: 09448059777
 
Abstract: Study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical composition and toxicological effect of the Sapindus laurifolius methanolic leaf extract using Wistar albino rats as model animal. The phytochemical analysis was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Toxicity studies were conducted as per the guidelines of organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD 423 acute toxic class method) for testing of chemicals. In repeated 28-day oral toxicity study (OECD 407), leaf extract was administered at the dose of 50, 200 and 800 mg/kg fixing the limit dose of 1000 mg/kg. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, flavanoids, glycosides and bitter principles. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 cut-off values were found to be more than 2g/kg in leaf extract. In repeated 28 day oral toxicity study, significant (P<0.05) increase in AST, ALT, BUN, creatinine and total protein was noticed in the group administered with 800 mg/kg of plant extract. The histopathological changes were confined to liver, kidney and intestine revealing mild to moderate hepatotoxicity, severe nephrotoxicity and increased goblet cell activity with intestinal damage. The changes were correlating with increased dose of leaf extract. Thus S. laurifolius leaf extract was found to be non toxic in acute toxicity study as compared to repeated 28 day oral toxicity study, where in the plant extract was toxic in higher doses applied for longer duration.
 
Key words: Sapindus laurifolius, HPTLC, Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity.
 
13.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3877-3882 (2013)
 
Phytochemical analysis and in vitro cytotoxic activity of Asteracantha longifolia extract on MCF 7 and NIH 3T3 cancer cell lines
 
Santhosh Kumar, C.N., Shridhar, N.B., Jagadeesh, S.S., Rao, S. and Ansar Kamran, C.
 
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore - 560 024, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar-585 401, Karnataka. E. mail: sridhar_vet@rediffmail.com, Cell: 09448059777
 
Abstract: Natural products of plant origin and numerous non-nutritive dietary constituents have been shown to play a salutary role in cancer chemoprevention. Study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical composition and cytotoxic nature of the Asteracantha longifolia on MCF-7 and NIH3 cell lines. The phytochemical analysis was performed using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). In vitro cytotoxic activity of crude methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Asteracantha longifolia was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and exclusion method. Flavanoids, glycosides, saponin and bitter principles were the major phytoconstituents present in both methanolic and petroleum ether extract. The methanolic extact of A. longifolia greatly inhibited MCF-7 and NIH-3T3 cell growth with IC50 of 95.78 μg/ml and 145.2 μg/ml respectively. The petroleum ether extract inhibited MCF-7 and NIH-3 cell growth with IC50 of 32.89 μg/ml and 98.88 μg/ml respectively. Thus petroleum ether extract was found to be more cytotoxic than methanolic extract and this property of the plant can be used to identify the cytotoxic activity in in vivo model by experimentally inducing cancerous condition in order to explore its medicinal value in cancer therapy.
 
Key words: Asteracantha longifolia, HPTLC, MCF-7, NIH-3T3 cancer cell line.
 
14.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3883-3888 (2013)
 
Evaluation of antidiabetic efficacy of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats
 
Rao, S., Rao, S., Sathyanarayan, M. L.,Manjunatha, K. P., Byregowda, S. M., Ramachandra, G. and Kalge, R.
 
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, KVAFSU, Bangalore.
E. mail: drraoiahvb@gmail.com, Cell: 08865 61882
 
Abstract: The alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract (1 gm/kg b w / day) alone and its combination with glibenclamide half dose were tested for their biochemical and pathomorphological effects in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Streptozotocin produced diabetes effectively in all the animals at 45 mg/kg in citrate buffer intraperitonially with a significant (Pd”0.001) increase in the mean (± SE) serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT and AST and a significant reduction in serum insulin in diabetic rats. Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract alone and in combination with glibenclamide half dose treated rats showed significant (Pd”0.001) reduction in the levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT and AST from Day 3 post treatment till the end of the study with significant improvement in serum insulin levels (Pd”0.001) in diabetic animals. Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract alone and with glibenclamide half dose also improved the damage caused by STZ morphologically in beta cells of islets of Langerhans and hepatocytes. A synergistic effect between Trigonella and glibenclamide was observed in alleviation of several diabetic effects.
 
Key words: Diabetes, Trigonella foenum graecum, Streptozotocin.
 
15.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3889-3892 (2013)
 
Safety evaluation of silk protein based biofilm by acute dermal irritation test in rabbits
 
Pavankumar, K. N., Jayakumar, K., Madhusudhan, H. S. and Chandrashekhara, N.
 
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College, Hassan-573202, KVAFSU, Karnataka. E. mail: pvn703@gmail.com, Cell: 09164516777
 
Abstract: The study was carried out to ascertain the presence or absence of acute dermal irritation effect of silk protein based biofilm in rabbits before using in wound healing study. The test materials were composed of silk proteins i.e., Centella asiatica blended silk film, Muperosin blended silk film, Blended silk film and Bilaminated silk film. Acute dermal irritation test was conducted as per the OECD Guidelines. Healthy young albino male rabbits aged 4 to 6 months were selected for the experiment. The substance to be tested was applied in a single dose to the skin of an experimental animal. Untreated skin areas of the test animal served as control. Approximately 24 hours before the test, hair coat was removed by closely clipping the dorsal area of the trunk of the animals. If there was no serious skin reaction observed in the initial test, the negative response was confirmed using six animals, each with one patch for an exposure period of four hours. The animals were observed for 14 days after the removal of patches. All animals were examined for signs of erythema, eschar and edema. The responses were scored and graded at 1 hour, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the patch removal. In the initial test there was no skin reaction observed in rabbits after any of the three sequential exposures and after a period of 14 days observation, there was no appreciable skin reaction seen. In the confirmatory test, after an exposure period of four hours, there were no signs of erythema, eschar and oedema observed in all the groups. The scoring was given as ‘0’ for all time points of observation in all the groups. Silk protein based film had no apparent dermal irritating potential in rabbits so these test materials are safe to use in wound healing study.
 
Key words: Silk protein film, Wound healing.
 
16.     Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3893-3897 (2013)
 
Co-administration of Aloe vera with piperine and Moringa oleifera with curcumin attenuate beryllium induced blood biochemical alterations in rat
 
Agrawal, N.D., Jaswal, A., Shakya, A.K., Srivastava, S., Shukla, S. and Mathur, R.
 
Reproductive Biology and Toxicology Laboratory, School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP) -474011. E. mail: agrawalnarottam@gmail.com, Cell: 08602561224
 
Abastract:: Female albino rats were administered beryllium nitrate at doses of 1mg/kg i.p. once a day for 90 consecutive days followed by combination therapy of Aloe vera (150mg/kg p.o.) with piperine (2.5mg/kg p.o.) and Moringa oleifera root extract (150mg/kg p.o.) with curcumin (5mg/kg p.o.) once a day for last 15 days to encounter the characteristic blood biochemical alterations. Exposure of beryllium nitrate induced severe alterations in blood biochemical variables. Beryllium nitrate disturbed liver function test as evidenced by induced leakage of AST, ALT in serum whereas activity of SALP was decreased. Exposure of beryllium nitrate disturbed the kidney function test by increased level of urea, uric acid and creatinine. A significant increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and bilirubin was recorded whereas hemoglobin, albumin and blood sugar was decreased as compare to control. Treatment with therapeutic agents maintained the liver and kidney function test and other blood biochemical variables whereas combination therapy of Aloe vera with piperine was found to be most effective in reversal of blood biochemical variables more towards control. By present study, it can be concluded that combination therapy of Aloe vera with piperine is better option in treatment of beryllium toxicity.
 
Key words: Beryllium, Aloe vera, Piperine, Moringa oleifera, Curcumin.
 
17.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3899-3904 (2013)
 
Agrobacterium transformation of eggplant (Solanum melongena l.) for glucuronidase gene expression
 
Kaur, M.,Dhatt, A.S., Sandhu, J.S.,Gosal, S.S. and Sidhu, G.S.
 
Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab. E. mail: mkaur97@rediffmail.com, Cell: 09463664452
 
Abstract: Cotyledon explants of eggplant genotype BL-5 were used for standardizing Agrobacterium transformation. To develop regeneration baseline, cotyledon explants of in vitro grown seedlings of eggplant genotype i.e. BL-5 were regenerated on MS medium fortified with 2.0-3.0 mgl-1 BAP with or without 1.0 mgl-1 kin. Cotyledon was found the best for plant regeneration (66.47%) as well as for number of buds explant -1 (21.76) on MS medium fortified with 2.5 mgl-1 BAP and 1.0 mgl-1 Kin. The highest number of buds was developed by cotyledon explant on 2.5mgl-1 BAP (24.90) that was followed by 2.0mgl-1 BAP (17.90). In antibiotics sensitivity assay, Kanamycin @15 ppm completely checked the regeneration of untransformed cotyledons and Cefotaxime @ 300 ppm enhanced the direct plant regeneration as well as number of buds per cotyledon. Co-cultivation of cotyledon with Agrobaterium (strain GV3101) containing Cry1AC-II gene (1:25 dilution for 10 min) for 48 hrs and further selection (10 ppm Kanamycin + 300ppm Cefotaxime) - cum regeneration (2.5 mgl-1 BAP and 1.0 mgl-1 Kin) at gave 30.00% selection efficiency. GUS expression in cotyledon explants and elongating shoots confirmed the successful transformation of Cry1AcverII and GUS gene(s) by Agrobacterium transformation in local genotype of eggplant. The selected plants with well-developed root system established in the field after hardening in a glass house, where the plants flowered and produced mature fruits with viable seeds.
 
Key words:Eggplant, Regeneration, Agrobacterium, Cotyledon
 
18.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3905-3912 (2013)
 
Multiple shoot regeneration through in vitro culture technique in Ker {Capparis decidua (forsk.) edgew}
 
Jhajharia, S., Choudhary, P., Jhajharia, A., Shri Kant and Meshram, S.
 
Department of Farm Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, U.P. E. mail: arunstatistics@gmail.com,   Cell: 08765120512
 
Abstract: The “Thar Desert” region of Rajasthan in north-west India is one of the most inhospitable landscapes on earth, where agriculture is not a dependable proposition- after the rainy season, at least 33% of crops fail. The region faces frequent droughts. Ker or ‘Capparis decidua’ is one of most popular and important constituent of the thar desert ecosystem and an regular content of daily meal for ‘common man’. The hostile environmental conditions of the desert. limits the establishment of new seedlings by natural regeneration of C. decidua through seeds. For large scale multiplication, a more efficient method, tissue culture technique has developed to propagate elite plant material very rapidly as compared to vegetative propagation. The experiment was conducted for develop the multiple shoots in ker (Capparis decidua (Fosk) Edgew) by taking shoot tips of 3-4 weeks old seedlings. The plant growth regulators namely, cytokinins (BAP and KN) were used alone or in combination with auxins (NAA and IAA). Maximum numbers of shoots per explant were obtained on MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg l-1) alone. However, due to the higher conversion frequency maximum numbers of shoots were obtained on BAP (3 mg l-1) + NAA (0.1 mg l-1). The present study suggested that regenerated shoots could be rooted best on 1.0 mg l-1 IBA. By employing this method large number of ‘ker’ plants can be produced starting from a single individual in a relatively short time.
 
Key words: Capparis decidua, Multiple shoot regeneration, explants.
 
19.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3913-3920 (2013)
 
In vitro plant regeneration from leaf and petiole tissues of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Solan vajr)
 
Sharma, P. and Srivastava, D.K.
 
Department of Biotechnology, Dr Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan 173230, Himachal Pradesh. E. mail: poornimasharma.sharma@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Plants were regenerated from leaf and petiole explants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Solan Vajr). Three weeks old aseptically grown seedlings were used as a source of explants for plant regeneration studies. Leaf and petiole explants were induced to form callus by culturing on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different combinations and concentrations of BAP, IAA, TDZ, Kinetin, NAA and Adenine. Adventitious shoot buds were induced from calluses/ explants by culturing on these media. Out of 62 different combinations of growth regulators (BAP+IAA, Kn+IAA, TDZ (alone), TDZ+Ad, TDZ+IAA, TDZ+NAA, TDZ+BAP), tried for leaf and petiole explants separately, the high frequency shoot regeneration from leaf (68%) and petiole (80%) explants was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 1mg/l BAP+ 0.5mg/l IAA and 1mg/l Kn+ 1mg/l IAA respectively. TDZ in combination with BAP gave better results on shoot regeneration in comparison to TDZ alone. High percentage of root regeneration (95%) in in vitro developed shoots was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.2mg/l IBA in a short interval of 10-12 days. The regenerated plantlets after acclimatization were transferred to glass house conditions and both vegetative and floral characteristics were observed. An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration protocol has been standardized in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Solan Vajr). This regeneration system would be valuable for genetic transformation studies in tomato.
 
Key words: Tomato, Leaf, Petiole, Regeneration.
 
20.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3921-3926 (2013)
 
Optimization of conditions for micropropagation of two commercial sugarcane cultivars CoPANT 03220 and CoPANT 05224
 
Dobhal, U., Sharma, M.D., Singh, P., Sharma, E., Kumar, S. and Gaur, A.K.
 
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, College of Basic Science and Humanities, G. B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, Uttarakhand. 
E. Mail: malik.sundip@gmail.com upmadob@gmail.com
 
Abstract: A protocol for micropropagation of sugarcane through apical bud culture using two sugarcane varieties viz CoPant 03220 and CoPant 05224 was optimized. The apical buds used as explants were directly collected from field of N. E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, Pantnagar in the month of September 2011 to April 2012.These apical buds were kept in MS medium fortified with different concentrations and combination of cytokinin benzyladenine purine BAP (1 mgl-1 to 5 mgl-1) and kinetin Kn (1 mgl-1 to 5 mgl-1) for contamination free establishment. After in vitro establishment, shooting was initiated within 15 days of growth period though shooting response was poor at an early stage, due to phenolic exudation. The problem of phenolic contamination was tackled to some extent by adding 0.2 % of insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to culture medium. The shoots thus formed were transferred to multiplication medium containing 2 to 4 mgl-1 of BA , 1 mgl-1 of Kn and small quantity (0.5 mgl-1) of auxin indole -3 acetic acid (IAA). Maximum shoots were observed in medium supplemented with 2 mgl-1 of BA, 1 mgl-1 of Kn and 0.5 mgl-1 of IAA in both the varieties of sugarcane. MS medium (half strength) supplemented with different concentrations of auxins napthelene acetic acid (NAA) and Indole 3 butyric acid were used for in vitro root formation from proliferated shoots. Maximum roots were obtained in MS medium supplemented with 4 and 5 mgl-1 of NAA in both the varieties. The plantlets formed were successfully acclimatized and hardened in the month of April/May 2012. The response towards different hormonal combination was not different for these two varieties of sugarcane.
 
Key words: Sugarcane cultivars, Copant 03220, Copant 05224
 
21.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3927-3930 (2013)
 
Physiological and biochemical changes induced by Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) in mungbean [Vigna radiata (l.) wilczek]
 
Patel, H.,Kalaria, R., Mahatma, M.,Chauhan, D.A. and Mahatma, L.
 
Department of Plant Pathology, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari 396 450, Gujarat. E. mail: patelharshal4447@yahoo.in, Cell 09925051652
 
Abstract: In present investigation physiological and biochemical changes in mungbean induced by the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus were investigated. In physiological parameters, Leaf area index (LAI) and photosynthesis rate was reduced in the symptomatic leaves as compared to the complete symptomless leaves. The chlorophyll ‘a’ and total chlorophyll was reduced due to virus infection. However, chlorophyll ‘b’ increased in the symptomatic leaves as compared to the complete symptomless leaves. Among the biochemical parameters, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, protein and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was found in increasing trend, whereas starch content and activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was found in decreasing trend in the symptomatic leaves as compared to the complete symptomless leaves.
 
Key word: Mungbean yellow mosaic virus, Vigna radiate
 
22.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3931-3936 (2013)
 
Plant regeneration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum  L.: A rapid in vitro method
 
Ezhilarasi, T. and  Nallathambi, G.
 
Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641 003,
Tamil Nadu. E. mail: ezhil_agri@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: A rapid in vitro plant regeneration protocol for cotton was developed using shoot apex as explants. Seven days old shoot apex isolated from the cotton genotypes viz., Coker 310, Coker 312, MCU 5 and SVPR 2 were inoculated in the MS medium containing different plant growth hormones for shoot elongation. Highly significant difference was observed for the response of shoot apices due to genotype and plant growth regulators. The highest mean value of 98.67 per cent was noticed in MS, 0.05 mg/l TDZ, 1.0 mg/l NAA followed by MS, 0.01 mg/l TDZ, 1.0 mg/l NAA (95.83 per cent). Among the genotypes SVPR 2 recorded the highest mean value of 83.93 per cent followed by MCU 5 (81.07 per cent) for shoot elongation. The most successful regeneration response was observed with shoot apices of 7 days old seedlings irrespective of all the genotypes studied. The responsive shoots were transferred to different rooting media for whole plant regeneration. High rooting response (92.33 per cent) was observed in the medium MS, 0.1 mg/l GA3, 1.0 mg/l NAA. The rooted plants were transferred to the pots containing sterilized soil. The plants were covered with polyethylene bags and kept in the culture room for acclimatization.
 
Key words: Cotton regeneration
 
23.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3937-3942 (2013)
 
In-vitro regeneration of Ocimum killimandscharicum l.: A camphor yielding medicinal plant
 
Sharma, N.K.,Vandana, T., Kumar, M. and Kumar, H.
 
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, FBS & H, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur 848 125, Bihar,E. mail: nkbiotech@yahoo.co.in
 
Abstract: In vitro shoot regeneration was achieved using shoot tips of Ocimum killimandscharicum L., an important medicinal plant species belonging to the family Lamiaceae. Shoot proliferation was initiated from shoot tip explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) (0.5-2.0 mgl-1), kinetin (KN) (0.5-2.0 mgl-1) and with combinations such as [BA (0.5 mgl-1) + IAA (0.10-1.00 mgl-1)]. The maximum number of shoots (7.41 ± 0.34), with average length 4.60 ± 0.20 cm was recorded with medium containing 0.5 BA mgl-1 + 1.00 mgl-1 IAA. Shoot culture was established by repeated subculturing of the original shoot tip explants on shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of newly formed shoots. In this way, 25-30 shoots were obtained from a single shoot tip explant after 4 months. The single shoots were transferred for rooting to ½ MS medium containing 1.5 mgl-1 IBA. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to plastic cups containing a mixture of garden soil, farm yard manure and sand (1:1:1) in controlled environment for longer duration for achieving high survival percentage (70-80%). Thus, a comprehensive micropropagation protocol was developed for Ocimum killimandscharicum L., which can be used for its commercial propagation.
 
Key words: Ocimum killimandscharicum L., In vitro regeneration.
 
24.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3943-3948 (2013)
 
Antioxidant properties and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of two eggplant
(Brinjal) varieties
 
Patel, K., Patel,V.H., Subhash, R. and Elias, J.
 
P.G. Department of Home Science, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand-388120
E. mail: jishaelias@yahoo.co.in
 
Abstract: Brinjal or Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is widely consumed throughout the world and it varies in fruit colour, shape, size and nutritional composition. The aim of the present study was first to evaluate the antioxidant properties of two locally available eggplant varieties (purple - long shape and white - round shape) and secondly to evaluate its ability to prevent of oxidative DNA damage.. Antioxidant properties were assessed by in vitro methods like total phenol, DPPHRSA, ABTSRSA, FRAP and in vivo in yeast model. Total phenolic content of green variety (490.96 ± 20.73 gallic acid equivalents mg/100 g extract) was found to be significantly higher than that of purple variety (325.69±11.36 gallic acid equivalents mg/100 g). DPPHRSA, ABTSRSA and FRAP was also found to be higher in the white variety (3922.90±105.84 g equivalent to trolox /100g extract, 421.46±33.61 g equivalent to trolox /100g extract and 1149.50±20.06 g equivalent to trolox /100g extract) compared to the purple suggesting that the white variety of eggplant had better antioxidant properties. Both the varieties of eggplant were able to prevent DNA damage induced by H2O2 (200mM) in yeast model. These results were comparable with synthetic and pure antioxidants like Trolox (1 mg %) and gallic acid (1 mg %) which were used as controls. The present study concludes that both the eggplant varieties had protective effect against DNA damage attributed to   its high antioxidant activity.
 
Key words: Eggplant, antioxidant properties, DNA damage.
 
25.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3949-3952 (2013)
 
Influence of plant biostimulants on physio-chemical characteristics of Pomegranate cv.
 Kandhari kabuli
 
Abubakar, A.R., Ashraf, N. and Ashraf, M.
 
Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni,
173 230 (H.P.). E. mail: naira.ashraf@gmail.com
 
Abstract: To determine the effect of biostimulants on fruit quality of pomegranate, a field experiment was conducted in experimental orchard of the Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, H.P. The experiment consisted of 19 treatments with three replications. The pomegranate trees cv. Kandhari Kabuli under investigation were subjected to foliar spray of biostimulants viz. Vipul, Spic Cytozyme, Homobrassinolides, Biozyme Crop Plus, Vipul + Homobrassinolides and control. The results revealed that the highest total sugars, reducing sugars, sugar acid ratio, juice content, fruit rind: rag: aril ratio, and minimum rag percentage, non-reducing sugars and titratable acidity were recorded in trees treated with Spic Cytozyme (4 ml/l). The highest TSS was observed with the application of Vipul 15ml/l. 
 
Key words: Pomegranate, quality, biostimulants, sugars
 
26.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3953-3960 (2013)
 
Evaluation of antidiabetic efficacy of Pterocarpus marsupium extract in Streptozotocin induced diabetes
 
Manjunatha, K.P.,  Sathyanarayana, M.L., Shesha Rao, Suguna Rao, Vasanth, M.S., Narayanaswamy, M., Placid, E.D’ Souza., Shridhar, N.B., Kadagi, M. and Srikanth, M.
 
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, KVAFSU, Bangalore 560 024.
 E. mail: manjukpvet@gmail.co.in, Cell: 09880669859
 
Abstract: The alcoholic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium extract was tested for its biochemical and pathomorphological effects in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in all the animals at 45 mg/kg b.w. The diabetic animals showed significant (P < 0.001) increase in the mean (± SE) serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT and AST and a significant reduction in serum insulin levels. Pterocarpus marsupium extract supplementation at the dose of 500 mg/kg b.w significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT and AST with significant improvement in serum insulin levels (P < 0.001) compared to diabetic animals. Pterocarpus marsupium also alleviated the damage caused by streptozotocin morphologically in pancreas by promoting the regeneration of cells of Islets of Langerhans. The results of the study, indicates that the Pterocarpus marsupium possesses desirable effect on diabetes and its associated metabolic alterations in experimentally induced diabetes mellitus.
 
Key words: Diabetes, Pterocarpus marsupium, Streptozotocin.
 
27.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3961-3970 (2013)
 
Agrobacterium mediated transformation in Capsicum annuum l. C.V. Mathania
 
Rizwan, M., Sharma, R., Soni, P. and Singh, G.
 
Plant Biotechnology centre, S. K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 006, Rajasthan.
E. mail: rizwanbt@gmail.com , Cell: 09929149478
 
Abstract: A protocol for regeneration and genetic transformation has been established for chilli (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Mathania). High frequency regeneration of shoot buds from cotyledonary leaves and hypocotyls was achieved with Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 10 mgL-1 BAP and 1 mgL-1 IAA. Elongation of shoots bud and subsequent rooting was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 1 mgL-1 IAA. A disarmed strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 carrying a binary vector plasmid p35SGUSINT has been used for transformation. This vector contains neomycin phosphotransferase gene (npt II), whose expression confirms Kanamycin resistance in transformants. In addition to npt II, plasmid encodes b-glucuronidase, reporter enzyme used for studying the expression of foreign genes in plants. The cotyledonary leaf and hypocotyls explants from in vitro grown seeds were infected and co-cultivated for 10 min. in Agrobacterium solution was found to give maximum transient expression. Shoot buds were produced on the selective medium containing Kanamycin (50 mgL-1) and Cefotaxime (700 mgL-1). Frequency of transient GUS expression in leaves was (54.95%) and in hypocotyls was (59.83%). Conversion frequency of transient to stable transformation was 2.5% in both the explants. The transgenic nature of the regenerated plants was confirmed by the histochemical staining of GUS, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of npt II gene.
 
Key words: Capsicum Annuum, Neomycin phosphotransferase gene.
 
28.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3971-3975 (2013)
 
Gender difference of oxidative stress to CCl4 induced hepatoxicity and protective role of Ficus virens in rats: A biochemical study
 
Pattar, J., Shridhar, N.B., Sanganal, J., Satyanarayana, M.L., Suhasini, K. and Kadagi, M.
 
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore 560 024. Karnataka. E. mail: jayashri.vet@gmail.com, Cell: 08088160765
 
 Abstract: Ficus virens (Family - Moraceae) is commonly known as white fig, being used as folklore medicine. Plant has been reported to posses in vitro antioxidant activity and non toxic in nature. Hence the present study was evaluated for hepatoprotective effect of methanolic leaf extract of this plant in rats of both genders. Group I (negative control), Group II (CCL4 control), Group III (standard control) treated with Vit-C (ascorbic acid) @ 200mg/kg, b.wt, p.o and Group IV, V and VI (Test groups) treated with methanolic leaf extract of Ficus virens 50,100 and 150mg/kg, b.wt, p.o respectively for 7 days. After 6 h of the last treatment acute hepatotoxicity has been induced by p.o administration of CCL4 (1:1 liqiud paraffin) @ 1ml/kg b.wt to all animals of Groups II-VI. On day 8th animals were sacrificed, Blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters and also liver tissue processed for liver function enzymes and antioxidant enzyme profile. Our study showed marked hepatoprotective effect in females than males and 150mg/kg (P<0.001) dose is more potent, also phytochemical analysis showed rich in flavonoids. Study shows that Ficus virens leaf extract is a potent hepatoprotective, hence can be used in therapy of disease condition where oxidative stress is prominent.
 
Key words: Ficus virens; Hepatoprotective, Gender difference.
 
29.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3977-3981 (2013)
 
Effect of benzylamino purine and naphthalene acetic acid on callus and protocorm formation
of Dendrobiumcv. Banyat pink
 
Salam, P., Salam, J. S. and Mohanty, C.R.
 
Biochemistry Laboratory, College of Agriculture, CAU, Imphal-795 004.
E. mail: jekendrasalam@rediffmail.com Cell: 0986256 5335
 
Abstract: The effect of growth regulators, benzylamino purine (BAP) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on callus and protocorm formation of Dendrobium cv. Banyat Pink were studied. Observations revealed that callus initiation in Banyat Pink was rather slow and only 40% of the tubes showed callus formation on 20th day after inoculation. Best callus spread (1.23 x 0.93cm) was observed in MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA while the smallest callus size was recorded in MS medium with 1.5 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l NAA. The number of protocorms per tube after 30 days of inoculation was higher in MS medium supplemented with BAP at the rate of 1.0 mg/l and 1.5 mg/l. However, after 45 days of inoculation, the numbers of protocorms recorded in the tubes supplemented with 1.5 mg/l of BAP were higher (6.83) than the tubes (5.5) supplemented with 1 mg/l of BAP. The least number of protocorms per tube were observed in MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l of BAP during both the days of observations. The experiment revealed that MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA was found to be the best for callus formation among all the treatments while maximum number and spread of the protocorm mass was found to be maximum in MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l BAP.
 
Key words: Dendrobium, Banyat pink, Callus culture.
 
30.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3983-3988 (2013)
 
Effect of aqueous extractsof Costus pictus and Solanum nigrum leaves on blood glucose levels and histoarchitecture of pancreatic islets in alloxan induced diabetic rats
 
Ranjitha, V. H., Narayana Swamy, M., Krishnaswamy, A., Satyanarayana, M.L.and Upendra, H.A.
 
Department of  Veterinary Physiology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, KVAFSU, Bangalore 560024.
 E. mail: mns263@yahoo.com, Cell: 09880937763
 
 
Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Costus pictus and Solanum nigrum and their combination in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=6). Group I served as normal control. Diabetes was induced in group II to V by intraperitoneal administration of single dose of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg). Group II was kept as diabetic control throughout the study. Group III, Group IV and Group V rats were gavaged once daily with aqueous extract of Costus pictus leaves @ 100 mg/kg bw, Solanum nigrum leaves @ 100 mg/kg bw and with both the aqueous extract of Costus pictus @ 50 mg/kg bw and Solanum nigrum @ 50 mg/kg bw, respectively for a period of 56 days. The changes in body weight and blood glucose level were measured at seven days interval for a period of 56 days and it was found that the Group V that received combination of extracts showed better improvement in body weight compared to Group III and Group IV on day 49 and 56. In all the extracts supplemented groups, the blood glucose levels significantly (P<0.05) restored to the normal levels on day 49 and 56. Examination of histoarchitecture of pancreas in Group V, that received the extracts of both the plants showed better islet population and more number of islet cells compared to regeneration of islet population in Group III and IV. It is concluded that the leaves extracts of Costus pictus and Solanum nigrum could be used to restore blood glucose level to normal, to improve the body weight and for better regeneration of pancreatic islet cells in diabetic conditions.
 
Key words: Diabetes, Costus pictus, Solanum nigrum
 
31.    Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 13(3): 3989-3996 (2013)
 
The wound healing study of silk protein based biofilms in rats
 
Pavankumar, K. N., Jayakumar, K.,Chandrashekhara, N.,  Narayanswamy, H. D., Manjunatha, K. P. and Nirmala, G. C.
 
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College, Hassan, KVAFSU, Karnataka. E. mail: pvn703@gmail.com, Cell: 09164516777
 
Abstract: From the immemorial, silk proteins viz., sericin and fibroin obtained from Bombyx mori belonging to Bombycidae family have proven to be effective in accelerating wound healing by keratinization and fibroblasts proliferation. Previous studies on silk protein have revealed about its role in wound healing but exhaustive studies were seldom performed. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing activity of silk protein based films by excision wound model using laboratory rats. The test materials for the present study were obtained from a commercial firm*. The effect of silk protein based films on wound healing was evaluated by assessing percent wound area reduction, wound healing time, hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue, total protein content, tensile strength and also by histological examination. Kollagen® films were used as a reference standard (positive control). Silk protein based films showed wound healing activity as there was decreased percent of wound area, increase in hydroxyproline and total protein content of granulation tissue, decreased wound healing time and increased tensile strength. Histological examination of wound tissue revealed enhanced epithelization, neovascularization, keratinization along with formation of keratin nest, fibroblasts proliferation with few inflammatory cells. The results of the present study indicated better wound healing property by silk protein based films.
 
Key words: Silk protein films, Wound healing
 
 

 
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