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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
1. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5351- 5358  (2016)
Synergistic effect of Allium sativum and Nigella sativa with bacillus sphaericus on culex pipiens larvae (diptera: culicidae)
Mahmoud, D M., Abdou, M.A., Hosni, E.M. and  Rady, M.H.
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassya, Cairo, Egypt
E. mail:,
Abstract: Bacillus sphaericus has a larvicidal activity towards Culex pipiens larvae. Development of resistance in certain populations of Culex sp. is the most common disadvantage of B. sphaericus application. During application, beside, B. sphaericus formulations suffering from long period of sun light and UV which turned them impotent. So, the present study was designed to evaluate the larvicidal activity of Bacillus sphaericus toxin,  Allium sativum and Nigella sativa oil extracts solitary and in combination against Culex pipiens 3rd larval instar. Data revealed that, Bacillus sphaericus was the most potent insecticide recording LC50 value as (0.25ppm.) followed by Allium sativum and Nigella sativa recording (0.45 and 2.46 ppm.), respectively. Addition of Allium sativum generally increased the toxic effect of Bacillus sphaericus, where LC50 decreased from (0.25 ppm to 0.12 ppm).  Addition of  Nigella sativa to Bacillus sphaericus decreased the toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus by increasing its LC50 from (0.01 ppm To 0.119 ppm). The biochemical studies using  (SDS-PAGE), revealed that there was an increase in number of protein bands due to treatment with (Bacillus sphaericus combined with Allium  sativum and Bacillus sphaericus with Nigella sativa). These impressive results from combinations proved that when joint-action is considered, the application possibilities for vector control increase significantly.
Key words:  Allium sativum, Nigella sativa, Bacillus sphaericus, Culex pipiens larvae..
2. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5359-5365  (2016)
Isolation and characterization of arsenic tolerent marine bacteria from south Gujarat coast near vapi, India
Khambholja, D.B. and Kalia, K.
B.R.D. School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat;
 National Institute of  Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Ahmedabad,
Abstract: The present study aimed to assess the arsenic concentration and isolation of arsenic-tolerant marine bacteria from the coastal region (Tithal, Daman (Union Territory, India) and Udvada) near Vapi, Gujarat, India. This coastal region is highly influenced by adjacent industries and receives enormous quantities of industrial effluents. ICP-OES analysis reveals that the average arsenic concentration in coastal surface sediment and seawater samples were 4.64 mg kg-1 and 10.29 µg L-1 respectively. The elevated level of arsenic was observed at Udvada followed by Daman and Tithal stations. Initial screenings of arsenic-tolerant marine bacteria were carried out in selective medium containing 0.28 mM of arsenate, allowing isolation of total twenty-two bacterial strains. The isolates were further screened for arsenic hyper-tolerance using increased arsenic concentration in the medium. Isolate KKDK-7 and KKDK-8 showed maximum tolerance of 350 mM and 100 mM, respectively, for arsenate and 2 mM and 10 mM respectively for arsenite. The growth kinetics data indicate that around 50% reductions in the growth of KKDK-7 and KKDK-8, following the treatment of maximum tolerance levels of arsenic. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the bacteria group into Marinobacter and Citricoccus.
Key words: Arsenic tolerant, Marine bacteria, Vapi, Seawater, Coastal sediment
3. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5367-5371  (2016)
Epidemiology,  gross and histopathology of sudden death syndrome in broiler chickens
Praveen Kumar, G.R., Satyanarayana, M.L. and Chandrashekhara, N.
Scientist-I, ADDL, Sira, IAH & VB, KVAFSU, Bangalore, Karnataka. E. mail:
Abstract: A total of eighteen different farms with the history of sudden death syndrome were investigated. Analysis of data revealed that the susceptible age for sudden death syndrome was reported as early as first week and age between 4 to 5 weeks was found to be highly vulnerable. The average sudden death syndrome (SDS) mortality percentage in 18 broiler farms ranged from 0.61 to 2.49 per cent. The SDS was induced by administration of 10 ml  lactic acid (85%)  through crop intubation and clinical signs observed included loss of balance, abruptly falling on to the ground, violent wing-flapping, strong muscular contractions and extended neck and legs. Grossly, hearts appeared enlarged and dilated with auricles contained clotted blood and histologically liver, lungs, kidney and spleen show varying degree of congestion and haemorrhages whereas heart showed congestion, hemorrhages, necrosis and infiltration of mononuclear cells. Myocardium exhibited degeneration, separation and hyalinization of cardiac fibres. There was congestion in aorta haemorrhages, degeneration, necrosis, fat vacuoles and corrugated appearance in the intimal layer. Liver illustrated cell swelling, vacuolar degeneration, fatty changes, necrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration. Kidney showed degeneration and necrosis of tubules, glomerular thickening with hypercellularity. Lungs showed peribronchiolar and alveolar edema with ruptured alveoli with infiltration of inflammatory cells. Likewise there was massive congestion, hemorrhages and lymphocytolytic activity  in spleen.
Key words: Sudden death syndrome,  Broilers chicken
4. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5373-5380  (2016)
Histochemical study on the effects of spinosad on the larvae of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)  (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)
Magda Mohamed Abo El-Mahasen
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-kom, Egypt.
E. mail:,
Abstract: The histochemical study of the sublethal concentrations of spinosad (Tracer) on the polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids (RNA, DNA) content of the midgut, integument (body wall), fat cells, Malpighian tubules and the muscles of 4th instar larvae of  Spodoptera littoralis treated with 50 and 100 ppm of spinosad were studied. The results showed that the tested bioinsecticide (spinosad) caused severe reduction in the polysaccarides, proteins and RNA content while DNA content was weakly affected after 72 hours of treatment.
Key words: Spodoptera littoralis, Spinosad
5. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5381-5386  (2016)
Optimization of DNA isolation and PCR protocol for SSR analysis for root characterization in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Dedhrotiya, A.T.,Acharya, S.,Sheikh, W. and  Yuvrajsinh, K.V.
Central Instrumentation Laboratory, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat, 385 506. E. mail:,
Abstract: The experiment promulgate an exciting and handy method of extraction of DNA which involve a use of wash buffer containing Tris-HCl, PVP and addition of β- mercaptoethanol separately in each sample and extraction buffer containing CTAB, Tris-HCI, EDTA, NaCl and PVP followed by purification of DNA with RNAase, phenol : chloroform: isoamly alcohol and finally precipitation of DNA by chilled isopropanol. The protocol is simple and has no special requisites. In terms of quantity (up to 1127.2-2212.5 ng/μl) and quality (A260/280 = 1.78 to 1.86) the present method has advantages over many other wheat DNA extraction protocols.
Key words: DNA isolation; Triticum ae stivum
6. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5387-5391  (2016)
Anticancer activity of Biophytum sensitivum in  breast cancer MCF-7 cell line
Saravanan, K., Jayabal, P., Elavarasi, S.,  Santhi, M. P. and  Palanivel, K.
PG and Research Department Zoology, Nehru Memorial College (Autonomous), Puthanampatti,
Tiruchirappalli  621 007, Tamilnadu; E. mail:
Abstract: In the present study, we exmined the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic, methanolic and chloroform extracts of Biophytum sensitivum plant materials in breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines with varying degrees of in vitro cytotoxic potential.  The percentage (IC50) with regard to cytotoxicity was found to be 45% and 50% for 24 hrs and 48 hrs respectively for chloroform extract. Apoptotic morphological changes in MCF-7 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatic condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies. 
Key words:; Biophytum sensitivum; Anticancer activity, Breast cancer,
7. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5393-5398  (2016)
In vitro analysis of antimicrobial property of silver and silver coated silica nono particles from microorganism 
Yuvrajsinh, K.V.,Faldu, H.G.,  Dedhrotiya, A.T. and Talekar, N.S.
Central Instrumentation Laboratory, Directorate of Research office, Sardarkrushinagar, Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar Gujarat, 385 506; E. mail:,
Abstract: Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, synthesis, and application of materials and devices whose size and shape have been engineered at the nanoscale. It exploits unique chemical, physical, electrical, and mechanical properties that emerge when matter is structured at the nanoscale. Certain nano powders possess antimicrobial properties. When these powders contact cells of E. coli, or other bacteria species and viruses, over 90% are killed within a few minutes. Due to their antimicrobial effect, nanoparticle of silver and titanium dioxide (<100nm) are assessed as coatings for surgical masks. In present work isolation and screening of microorganisms capable of synthesizing nanoparticles and after purification apply as antimicrobial property on Microorganisms.
Key words: Antimicrobial, Silver nanoparticles
 8. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5399-5404  (2016)
Direct organogenesis of Pongamia pinnata (l.) pierre from cotyledonary segments: A valuable biodiesel tree
Singh, M.,Jatoliya, J.K.and Saharan, V.
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur, 313001 (Rajasthan).  E. mail:
Abstract: Pongamia pinnata is a leguminous tree, having potential in production of biodiesel. Increasing demand of quality planting material emphasis is on rapid and mass multiplication through plant tissue culture technology. Therefore, protocol for high frequency mass multiplication of P. pinaata was established using cotyledonary explants. Multiple shoots were induced in vitro from proximal and distal cotyledonary segments. MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l TDZ induced maximum shoot induction (63.3%) from proximal segments. The highest shoot multiplication (6.3 shoots/explant) was found on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l TDZ from proximal segments. Proximal cotyledonary segments were found more morphogenic response than distal cotyledonary segments. MS basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA + 2.0 mg/l activated charcoal induced the highest root induction (30%). Rooted plantlets were hardened in vermiculite and cocopeat in the ratio of 1:1 for 3 weeks. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized, established and transfer to the soil
Key words: Pongamia pinnata, Biodiesel, Cotyledonary segments
9. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5405-5412  (2016)
Regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor KAPPA B ligand and osteoprotegerin expression by thyroid stimulating hormone in human  osteoblast like (SAOS-2) cells
Ramajayam, G., Srinivasan, N., Senthil Kumar, K.,Selvaraj, J. and Valli, G.
Department of Endocrinology, Dr. Almpgibms, University of Madras, Chennai 600 113;
Abstract: The process of bone remodelling involves complex interactions between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts produce key cytokines osteoprotegerin (OPG) involved in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) cytokine involved in the activation of bone resorption that can affect osteoclast function and activity.  Many of the hormones have been shown to have influence on these cytokines while imparting their effect on bone.   Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) promotes differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts, and its direct effect on OPG and RANKL in human osteoblast like SaOs-2 cells was not documented. Hence, the present study was designed to address this issue. Low 0.01ng/mlTSH and High 10ng/ml of TSH treatment significant increase in the mRNA and protein expression OPG in human osteoblast like SaoS-2 cells after 48 hours. However, the mRNA and protein levels of RANKL were not altered after 48 h of TSH treatment. TSH appears to inhibit osteoclastogenesis by increasing the mRNA and protein expression of OPG, a blocker of osteoclastogenesis. In conclusion, the present study suggests that TSH exerts anabolic effects on osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity by regulating molecules necessary for such actions.
Key words: Osteoprotegerin, KAPPA B ligand, Thyroid stimulating hormone, SaOS-2
10. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5413-5419  (2016)
Isolation and screening of marine pigmented bacteria from Nellore coast for antimicrobial studies
Srilekha, V., Krishna, G., Sesha Srinivas, V. and  Singara Charya, M.A.
Department of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad 500085 (Telangana). E. mail:
Abstract: With a huge volume of unexplored wealth, oceans serve as the most important sources to the discovery of novel bioactive compounds that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. In the present study, water samples were collected from the sea surface inter tidal zones at different sampling sites along the Nellore coastal region. A total of 29 strains of pigmented bacteria were isolated on Zobell marine agar medium. In preliminary screening all the isolates were screened for the pigmentation. The isolate which exhibited the intense pigmentation was selected and subjected to the secondary screening. The isolate was characterised by using morphological physiological biochemical and 16s rRNA sequencing methods. The isolate was cultured in Zobell marine broth and incubated in a shaker at 150 rpm for 3 days at 28°C. After incubation the culture broth was centrifuged to obtain a pellet and the pellet was extracted with methanol  for pigments. The crude pigment extracts of the potent isolate were further screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against standard test organisms. The crude extract showed zone of inhibition against all pathogens tested.
Key words: Pigmented bacteria, Nellore coast
11. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5421-5426  (2016
Changes in peripartal β-hydroxy butyrate concentration in dairy cattle fed with propylene glycol,
 bypass fat and bypass protein
Shankare Gowda, A.J.,  Devaraj, M., Basavarajaiah, D.M., Krishnaswamy, A.,Ravindra,J.P. and Gupta, P.S.P.
Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Veterinary College, Vinoba nagar, Shimoga 577204. E. mail:,
Abstract: The present study was under taken to evaluate the influence of supplementation of propylene glycol (PG), bypass fat and bypass protein on β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in early lactating cows. A total of twenty eight dairy cows were randomly allotted to four groups with seven animals in each group. The Group-I animals served as control without being fed any feed supplement. Group-II animals received propylene glycol once daily as a drench at the rate of 300 ml per head while Group-III and Group-IV  animals were fed 100 and 200 g of commercially available bypass fat and bypass protein respectively. The mean serum BHB concentration showed substantial increase on day 0 and 7 postpartum compared to its level at prepartum stages in all the experimental groups. Its level continues to be at higher side at subsequent postpartum stages studied in the control group. The serum BHB concentration tended to decrease from day 14 postpartum in all the treatment groups with apparently low levels in Group-II animals. The stage variation recorded between different groups was inconsistent and non-significant at majority of the stages. The level of BHB concentration recorded from around one month after calving and onwards was more or less similar to prepartum levels in Group-II. In the remaining three groups its level was apparently high during postpartum stages compared to its level recorded at pre-partum stages. However, the level of serum BHB concentration recorded in all the groups appears to be not deleterious to normal reproductive functions.
Key words: β-hydroxybutyrate, Dairy cattle
12. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5427-5438  (2016)
Molecular study of bacterial leaf blight resistant pyramided lines of rice using SSR markers
Patel, A. A., Jadeja, G.C., Patel, T.R., Desai, A.S.and Zaman, M.
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology,Anand Agricultural University, Anand -388110,
Gujarat. E. mail:,     
Abstract: Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae is found world-wide and causes substantial damage to rice yield. A loss up to 20-50% was recorded in rice yield. Host plant resistance has proved to be an effective and economical measure for controlling this disease, while all other approaches are not practically, economically and efficiently useful. The bacterial leaf blight resistance gene specific SSR or microsatellites markers such as RM 13, RM 167, RM 21, SR 11 etc. have been successfully applied to study the presence of bacterial blight resistance genes. These microsatellites marker could readily differentiate the near isogenic lines from their susceptible check cultivars, therefore, can be used for marker assisted selection in breeding programs.
Key words: Bacterial leaf  blight, Rice, SSR Marker
13.    Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5439-5442  (2016
Characterization of sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) genotypes through protein profiling
Vadher, K.J., Sanghani J.M., Sabara, P.H., Bhalani, H.N., Sanghani,  A.O., Vakharia, D.N. and Sorathiya, J.S.
Department of Biotechnology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001, Gujarat.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to characterize the sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes through native protein profiling. In present study 16 genotypes of sesame are analyzed. The biochemical analysis of all sixteen genotypes showed about 12 bands of protein with Rm values ranged from lowest 0.41 to highest 0.98. The marker band of Rm value 0.41 was registered only in G.Til10, RT54, AT177 and AT178 genotypes.  The cluster analysis of protein profile formed two major clusters, clusters-I consisted of seven genotypes while cluster-II contains nine genotypes with the similarity of 72 %.  Among this 5 genotypes G.Til01, G.Til02, AT180, AT192 and AT196 showed highest 100 % similarity while the lowest resemblance of 50 % was observed between G.Til10, AT 158 and AT 177 and AT 158.
 Key words: Sesame genotypes, Protein profiling
14.  Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5443-5447  (2016)
The prenatal phase of buffalo mandibular salivary gland: An ultrastructural study
Singh, A.D. and Singh, O.
Division of Veterinary Anatomy, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, 141004, Punjab. E. mail:,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to elucidate ultrastructural changes in development of mandibular salivary gland of buffalo fetuses (n=36) ranging from 13.2cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (88th day) to full term. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL. The ultrastructural studies revealed that the cytoplasm of acinar cells was filled with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi profiles in mid and late foetal age groups. The secretory granules appeared first in the form of membrane bound secretory vesicles with homogeneous electron dense as well as electron lucent contents at 21.2cm CVRL (122nd day), however, mucous acinar cells contained electron lucent granules, while serous secretory cells as well as serous demilunes showed electron dense granules at 28.3cm CVRL (137th day) of prenatal life. The secretory granules were increased in number during the late foetal age group. Both mucous and serous acinar cells were differentiated by density of secretory granules at 78.8cm CVRL (251st day). The myoepithelial cells were located at the base of the acinar cells as well as intercalated and striated ducts, and were stellate in shape. The ultrastructure of myoepithelial cell revealed parallel stream of myofilaments in the cytoplasm and its processes. Desmosomes were observed along the junctional complex between cells. Lipofuscin pigments were noticed in the connective tissue septa surrounding the acinar cells.
Key words: Mandibular salivary gland, Prenatal, Buffalo
15. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5449-5456  (2016)
Plant regeneration and agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyl and root explants of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by NPT-II and GUS gene
Sharma, S., Gambhir, G., Sharma, P. and Srivastava, D.K.
Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan 173230 Himachal Pradesh. E. mail:, Cell: 097369 10667
Abstract: Plant regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer studies were carried out in pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Lincon). High frequency of shoot regeneration (83.53%) was obtained in root explants on MS medium supplemented with 2.00 mg/l TDZ medium as compared to hypocotyl (81.43%) on MS medium containing 4.50 mg/l BAP and 1.86 mg/l NAA medium respectively. MS medium supplemented with 0.20 mg/l IBA was found to be best for root regeneration (63.33%). Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain LBA 4404 carrying binary vector pBI121 was used for genetic transformation studies. Transformed cells were found to be able to grow on selective medium. Successful genetic transformations were confirmed by PCR using gene specific primers and by β-glucuronidase expression assay
Key words: Agrobacterium tumefaciens,  Gus gene,  npt-II gene, Pisum sativum
16. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5457-5462  (2016)

Isolation identification and characterization of Rhizobium sp. isolated from mungbean
Chudasama, M. K.  and  Mahatma, L.
Department of Plant Pathology. N.M.C.A., Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari 396 450, Gujarat.
E. mail: ,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to isolate Rhizobium bacteria which are capable of fixing of atmospheric nitrogen. This was attempted by ten different isolates isolated from mungbean root nodules cultivated in different parts of Navsari districts. Good growth of all the isolates was observed on congo red yeast extract mannitol agar (YEMA) medium. Out of the screened, isolate NAURh-2 selected for morphophysological and biochemical characterization. All the isolates were found   postitve for IMViC test (indole test, methyl red test, VP test and citrate utilization test), H2S test, nitrate reduction test and casein hydrolysis test. The isolated isolates were found to be gram negative in nature. The antibiotic profiling data indicated that isolate NAURh-2 showed resistant against many complex antibiotics. The taxonomic characterization was done by using Biolog, which assigned the isolate NAURh-2 to Rhizobium leguminosarum with 0.6 % SIM index. The isolates (NAURh-2) were characterized and identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum based on the morphological, biochemical, cultural and Biolog tests.
Key words:  Rhizobium leguminosarum, Biolog,
17. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5463-5467  (2016)
Assesment of biochemical variability in Anthurium (Anthurium andreanum l.) varieties
Sahare, H.A.,Singh, A., Udhutha, J. and Bhanderi, D.R.
Department of  Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari
396 450 (Gujarat). E. mail:
Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to study the existing variation with regard to postharvest biochemical aspects among eleven varieties of anthurium like tropical, fire, saffron, jaffira, sharan peruzzi cheers savana, sante royal, xavia and moments. These experiments were conducted during 2013-14 and 2014-15 years in the greenhouse complex and Laboratories of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture and Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, N.A.U., Navsari. The data on biochemical parameters were statistically analyzed using completely randomized design. Biochemical parameters were studied at successive vase life stages till senescence for parameters like total soluble sugar, protein and enzymatic activities like lipoxygenase. The varieties Sante Royal, Xavia and Peruzzi performed better with respect to post harvest biochemical behavior that contributed to enhanced vase life. Continued and high spathe sugar levels, protein, maintained lipoxygenase enzyme activity, ultimately delayed spathe senescence and increased the longevity of the anthurium cut flowers in these varieties.
Key words: Anthurium, LOX, TSS, Protein
18. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5469-5476 (2016)
Morphological and biochemical variants of saffron-potential candidates for crop improvement
Mir, J.I., Ahmed, N.,Khan,  H.,  Qadri, R.A., Shafi, W. and Zaffar, S.
Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar 190 007  (J&K). India.
Abstract: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a triploid sterile plant characterized by its long red stigmas, which produce and store its chief carotenoid derivatives- safranal, crocin and picrocrocin. Saffron selections of Kashmir are heterogeneous for floral characteristics which are mainly attributed to the environmental factors, though genetic factors may have role with regard to its differential characteristics  across various selections found in the area. In this study, thirty one (31) morphogically distinct selections of the crop were used for biochemical (HPLC) characterization. The results revealed a significant variation with respect to stigma length (2.86-4.84 cm), crocin (40-45mg/g), safranal (0.17-0.28 mg/g) and picrocrocin (0.87-1.27 mg/gm) contents across thirty one selected saffron clones. Although some clones showed variation with respect to stigma number, in addition to normal trifid stigmas some clones produce tetrafid stigmas as well but this character was not heritable.
Key words: Crocus sativus, Biochemical variants, Morphological variants
19. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5477-5480  (2016)
24-epibrassinolide alleviate oxidative damage generated due to high salinity stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)
Jain, R.and Patel, R.M.
Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, ASPEE College of Horticulture and
Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari.  E. mail:,
Abstract: The effects of 24-epibrassinolide, EBL on various stress markers during high salinity stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. var. Chafa) were studied. At 14th day of germination, chickpea seedlings were exposed to 150 mM NaCl alone or in combination with 0.1 µM EBL for 48 h. It was observed that MDA and H2O2 contents were significantly increased under salinity stress, however, EBL application could decline their levels indicating lesser oxidative damage. Moreover, EBL treatment to seedlings also showed an enhancement in activities of CAT, POD and SOD enzymes, which were further increased in seedlings treated with both NaCl and EBL together as compared to seedlings treated with NaCl alone. Furthermore, EBL application during salinity stress also helped in increasing the reduced proline and GSH contents and GSTs activity, as compared to NaCl alone. These results strongly depict an important role of EBL in production of secondary metabolites to help against oxidative damage generated due to high salinity stress.
Key words: Chickpea, 24-epibrassinolide, Salinity stress
20. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5481-5484  (2016)
The role of transposable elements in the gene regulation of plant genomes: A mini review
Sukhwal, A .,Chittora, M., Jain, D. and Ojha, S.N.
Department of  Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur 313 001 (Rajasthan).
E. mail:
Abstract: Transposable elements (TEs) are the key players in generating genomic novelty by a combination of the chromosomal rearrangements they cause and the genes that come under their regulatory sway. Genome size, gene content, gene order, centromere function, and numerous other aspects of nuclear biology are driven by transposable elements activity. Although the origins and attitudes of TEs have the hallmarks of selfish DNA, there are numerous cases where TE components have been co-opted by the host to create new genes or modify gene regulation. Transposable elements are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and share many common features, both structural and mechanistic, with mobile elements from other eukaryotes. Transposition of these elements can influence plant genes and genomes in many ways. TEs might directly affect the function of individual genes, provide a mechanism for rapidly acquiring new genetic material and disseminate regulatory elements that can lead to the creation of stress-inducible regulatory networks.
Key words:  Transposable elements, Gene regulation
21. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5485-5490  (2016)
In vitro regeneration through organogenesis in pigeon pea {Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill SP.}
Yadav, A., Kumar, A., Yadav, R., Misra, J. P.and Kumar, R.
Department of Biotechnology, S.V.P. University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut  (UP);
E. mail:
Abstract: A method for regenerating pigeonpea {Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.} plants has been developed using cotyledonary nods and embroyonic axes of mature seeds as explants. A large number of shoot buds were induced directly from explants of genotypes Pusa-9 and Bahar when cultured on different basal media fortified with a range of BAP concentrations (0–2 mg/l) and 0–0.5 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA3) either individually or in combination. The shoot buds developed into shoots when they were sub cultured on the same medium but with different concentrations of cytokinins. The shoots were elongated by sub culturing in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented than elongated shoots transmitted to half-strength MS medium with 0.3–0.5 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for root induction. Frequency of shoot induction in embryonic axes was better to cotyledonary node. The frequency of shoot bud regeneration was influenced by genotype, type of explant and concentrations of growth hormones. This process may be useful for improving the crop through genetic manipulations.
Key words: Cotyledonary nods, in vitro, Regeneration, Pigeonpea
22.  Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5491-5494  (2016)
Epidemiological study of urinary tract infections in dogs
Yogeshpriya, S., Pillai, U.N., Ajithkumar, S. and  Alex, P.C.
Department of  Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College and Research Institute,Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu  614625(Tamil Nadu).  E. mail:,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors for positive urine culture outcome in dogs with urinary tract disease. A total of 2545 dog cases in the year of 2011, 66 cases with clinical signs suggestive of urinary tract infections were selected. Dogs which showed clinical signs suggestive of urinary tract infection, such as pollakiuria, stranguria, dysuria, infrequent urination, haematuria, anorexia, depression and septicemia were selected. Urine was collected aseptically from selected animals for routine urine analysis in addition to detailed clinical examination. Based on urinalysis, UTI was confirmed for the present study. The mean age of affected animals was 3-5 years with a range of 10 months to 14 years. The occurrence of urinary tract infection in this study was 42.42 %. The incidence of disease was more in female dogs (57.14 %). The most common breed affected was German shepherd (21.42 %). The incidence was more in sporting group dogs followed by working and herding group breeds. The major clinical signs noted in the study were pyuria, stranguria, haematuria, anorexia, pollakiuria, foul smelling or dark yellow urine and emesis.  
Key words: UTI, age, sex, breed, occurrence.
23. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5495-5501  (2016)
Targeting induced local lesions in genomes (Tilling)  a reverse genetics tool for plant functional genomics: A review
Choudhary, R.C. and Kumara Swamy, R.V.
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and
Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan. E. mail:,
Abstract: The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene of interest, whether induced mutation or natural nucleotide variation are an extremely tool for improving traits in plant functional genomics. The reverse-genetics approach known as Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING) was created to potential of induced mutation by efficient mutagen to target and recover lesions in specific genes. However, in forward genetics over 2,050 mutant plant varieties has led to release using traditional mutagenesis. Alkylating mutagens such as ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) cause point mutation, earlier one is most widely used and thus produces an allelic series of missense and nonsense changes that can provide wide range of phenotypes. Detection of mutation can be further limited by the high through put background characteristics of PCR-based end-labelling heteroduplex mismatch strategy. TILLING uses both traditional mutagenesis and single nucleotide polymorphisms methods, applicable to most organisms with low in cost and less time. With advancement of new mutation discovery technique promise to increases applicability and efficiency of TILLING method in crop improvement.
Key words: TILLING, Reverse Genetics
24. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5503-5506  (2016)
Effects of reduced glutathione on oxidative stress on frozen-thawed Chhota Nagpuri ram semen
Kurmi, D.J.,Sinha, M.P., Kumar, R., Hazarika, S.B., Das, A.K. and  Dewry, R K.
Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ranchi Veterinary College, Birsa
Agricultural University, Ranchi 834006, E-mail:
Abstract: The study was designed to investigate the effect of reduced glutathione in Tris extender on semen and lipid peroxidation level of frozen-thawed Chhotanagpuri ram semen. A total of 36 ejaculates from six rams were used in the study. Each semen sample was diluted in Tris extender and divided into three fractions for addition of different levels (5 mM &7 mM and no antioxidant) of reduced glutathione. Thereafter, the diluted semen samples were frozen. The Sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, plasma membrane integrity and DNA integrity were evaluated immediately after post equilibration and 24 hours after freezing and thawing of semen. The lipid peroxidation assay was evaluated only in freeze thawed semen. The reduced glutathione in Tris dilutor at the concentration of 5 mM significantly (P<0.05) increased the values of different seminal characters such as sperm motility, live sperm, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity and DNA integrity but reduced the MDA production (P<0.05) as compared to Tris dilutor having 7mM GSH or Tris alone as the control. The percentage of sperm motility, live sperm, plasma membrane, acrosomal and DNA integrity in Tris dilutor containing GSH 5mM were found to be 74.03 ± 0.22,81.74 ± 0.13, 70.92 ± 0.12, 70.97 ± 0.14, 70.97 ± 0.14 and 83.94 ± 0.17, and 53.22 ± 0.23, 61.38 ± 0.15, 51.38 ± 0.11, 52.80 ± 0.16 and 76.14 ± 0.13 after equilibration and freezing, respectively.  From the results of the present study, it can be concluded, that the addition of reduced glutathione in Tris freezing medium at the concentration of 5mM in semen might have improved the longevity and quality of frozen thawed Chhotanagpuri ram semen.
Key words: Ram semen; Reduced glutathione; Lipid peroxidation
25. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5507-5510  (2016)
Ameliorative effect of Morinda citrifolia extract on imatinib induced toxicities: In vitro studies on human RBC’s
Mhatre, B.A., Desai, D. and Marar,T.
School of Biotechnology and  Bioinformatics, D.Y. Patil University, Sector 15, CBD Belapur,
Navi Mumbai 400614, (Maharashtra). E. mail:,
Abstract: Imatinib has been successfully introduced into haematology, oncology practice and rapidly endorsed as a first line treatment for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in the, accelerated, and blastic phases. A survival advantage demonstrated by this tyrosine kinase inhibitor has meant that patients are now treated with this agent on a long term basis. Imatinib induce oxidative stress cause pronounced pro-oxidant state of  excessive production of free radicals from weakening of the antioxidant defence system is consequences of many chemotherapeutic drugs. Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to oxidative stress but their metabolic activity is capable of reversing the injury under normal conditions. The purpose of the current study was to monitor the oxidative stress caused of Imatinib and its modulation with Morinda citrifolia (Noni juice) on Human RBCs. Enzymatic and  non enzymatic antioxidant were monitored and it was found that Noni checks the production of lipid peroxides and restores the activities of enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants. This indicates that superior exogenous administration of Morinda citrifoloia extract to patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy may help to  reduce the drug induced toxicities and side effects
Key wordsMorinda citrifoloia, Imatinib toxicity,  Human RBCs
26. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5511-5516  (2016)
Histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohis-tochemical alterations in rabbit mammary glands induced with bovine strains of Escherichia coli
Ravikumar, P., Rao, S., Byre Gowda, S.M., Satyanarayana,  M.L., Isloor, S. and  Jayaramu. G.M.
Dept of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College, Hassan 573202 (Karnataka)
 E. mail:
Abstract: In an attempt to understand the pathology of E.coli mastitis, six lactating rabbits each were infected with E. coli strains O9(36) and O147 isolated from bovine mastitis cases. One rabbit was euthanized at 24 hrs interval and the mammary glands were analyzed by gross and histopathology, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for induction of mastitis. The infected rabbits grossly revealed the inflammation of mammary glands by 24 hours post infection which intensified by 48 hours post infection. The gross lesions observed in the mammary glands were tumefaction, hyperemia, hard or firm consistency and oozing out of thick, slightly discolored milk upon incision. The histopathological lesions observed in the mammary glands of infected rabbits were very severe at 24 and 48 hours post infection with total loss of architecture and the lesions reduced in severity from 72 hours post infection. The lesions comprised hyperemia, perilobular and interlobular edema, degeneration and necrosis of the lining of epithelial cells, presence of large number of heterophils in the acini, septa and perivascular spaces, severe destruction of the acini and presence of E. coli organisms within the acini, septa and the perivascular areas.  The ultrastructural changes in the mammary glands at 48 hours post infection consisted of disruption of basement membrane of the alveolar epithelium, loss of microvilli, disruption of the endoplasmic reticulum, degeneration of mitochondria and presence of bacteria as electron dense coccobacillary structures in the lumina of the alveoli and in the interacinar septa. The immunohistochemical analysis of the mammary gland tissue samples demonstrated the presence of E.coli in the infected mammary glands as brownish yellow coccobacillary rods in clumps or in dispersed manner. It was concluded that both O9(36) and O147 strains of E.coli successfully induced acute mastitis in rabbits.
Key words: E. coli, Histopathology, Mastitis, Rabbit mammary gland.
27. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5517-5522  (2016)
Hematobiochemical profile and mineral status  in growing Beetal goat kids
Madan, J., Sindhu, S., Gupta, M. and Kumar, S.
 Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary
and Animal Sciences, Hisar (Haryana). E. mail:,
Abstract: A study was carried out to determine various hematological, biochemical and mineral parameters of local Beetal goat kids in their growth period. Blood samples were collected from twelve kids of around 2 month age (six female and six male) till eleven month age and analyzed for various hematological, biochemical and mineral parameters. The results revealed high hemoglobin and total erythrocyte count in female as compared to male growing kids. The observed results indicated a gradual decrease in lymphocytes (percent) in male and female growing kids with the increasing age though the difference was not comparable. Blood glucose, cholesterol, total protein and albumin values observed were in normal physiological limits. Glucose and cholesterol levels were higher in kids as compared to adult animals (P<0.05). Analysis of variance indicated that there was no significant variation in blood hematobiochemical and mineral profile between male and female kids.
Key words: Beetal goat kids, Hematological, Biochemical, Mineral
28. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5523-5526  (2016)
Haemato-biochemical profile of goats suffering  from goiter
Haq, Z., Khan, N., Rastogi, A., Sharma, R.K., Dar, A.M., Mir, M.,  Manzoor, N. and Dar, Y.M.
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry, SKUAST-J, R. S. Pura, Jammu 181102 (J & K).
E. mail:,
Abstract:  A survey was conducted on 113 goats (adult and kids) during an outbreak of goiter in Pithampur region of Indore (M.P.). It was found that, 30 adult goats and 7 kids were suffering from goiter. Abortions in the last month of pregnancy were recorded in 11 goats and all goats delivered stillborn kids. Dead kids were hairless and had skin oedema. The thyroid gland was well visible and palpable. Blood samples were collected from surviving goiterogenic goats and kids and compared with normal animals to observe changes in blood parameters. Results revealed that level of serum thyroxine (T4) were lower (P<0.05) in adult goats (38.02) and kids (47.21) as compared to the normal values (41.80, 51.40 in goats and kids respectively), while the values of triidothyronine (T3)were comparable in both the experimental groups. Other blood parameters viz. Hb (g/dl), PCV (%), TEC (×106/µl), TLC (×103/µl), eosinophils (%), were in normal range, while the lymphocytes were significantly higher in goitrogenic animals (P<0.05; 59.88 vs. 45.42% and 80.00 vs. 52.40%) in adult goats and kids respectively. On nutritional investigation of the matter, it was found that subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) might be responsible for the high incidence of goitre as goats grazed in forest, which were dominated in subabul. However, stall fed goats which were not fed subabul did not show any symptoms of the goitre.
Key words: Goitre, Goats, Subabul
29. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5527-5530  (2016)
Development of intestinal immunity in prenatal stages of Black Bengal goat
Gautam, A.K. and  Mishra, U.K.
Department of Anatomy and Histology, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna 800014 (Bihar)
E. mail:
Abstract: The frequency of appearance of lymphocytes was initiated from day 99 in lamina propria of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. By 106th day rudimentary form of Peyer’s patches appeared in the ileal submucosa and with advancing age it revealed lymphocytes, macrophage and few eosinophilic cells. A moderately dense and thick lymphoid aggregation was seen in caecal submucosa by 106 days of gestation. The DLT appeared to surround the basal part of caecal gland in loose form by 142 days of foetal age. In day old neonates Peyer’s patches revealed secondary nodules with a predominance of lymphocyte, plasma cells, macrophages, reticular cells, RBCs etc. The collagen fibers and elastic fibers did not appear in outer thin fibrous covering of the ileal Peyer’s patches by 94 days of gestation. By 112 days few weakly reactive collagen fibers appeared at said location. With advancing age prominent and abundant reticular fibers were evident in the wall of arteriolar capillaries and venules of the Peyer’s Patches follicles and intestinal submucosa as well as in lamina propria.
Key words: Intestinal immunity, Black Bengal goat, Prenatal
30. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5531-5535 (2016)
 Economic loss of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) caused by Rhizoctonia solani under temperate conditions of Kashmir: An emerging threat
Salwee, Y., Nehvi, F.A. and Qazi, N.A.
Saffron Research Station, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, (J and K). E. mail:,
Abstract: Climatic conditions in J&K has resulted in appearance of new foliar disease affecting the plant  at vegetative phase. Study confirmed that the causal agent was Rhizoctonia solani. Data averaged over villages recorded disease incidence level of 19.5%. Pathogenicity testing and leaf damage assessments were carried out using foliar infection for confirmation of disease. Economic loss due to new emerging disease is estimated to the tune of Rs 43.83 crores.
Key words:  Saffron, Rhizoctonia solani
31. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5537-5540  (2016)
Comparative study on methods of corm development in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under in vitro and
in vivo conditions
Salwee. Y. and  Nehvi, F.A.
Saffron Research Station, Sher-e-Kashmir, University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of  Kashmir, (J and K). E. mail:,
Abstract: Comparative study on methods of corm production in vitro and in vivo in saffron revealed significant superiority of  in vitro corm production owing to controlled environmental conditions. In vitro conditions revealed an increase of 125% for corm proliferation as compared to growth under in vivo conditions. The decline under in vivo conditions is attributed to weather fluctuation leading to poor initial plant development and ultimately low proliferation ratio of corms.
Key words: Corm production, In vitro, In vivo, Saffron
32. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5541-5545  (2016)
Biochemical and histological alterations in rat kidney exposed to benzene leading to oxidative stress
Roy, H.
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara,
 Gujarat, E. mail:,
Abstract: The study investigated the effects of benzene on renal dysfunction biomarkers, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups as control, vehicle control (corn oil) and treated (low dose, 50mg/Kg body weight/day and high dose 100mg/Kg body weight/ Day) and exposed with benzene via oral route for 90 days. Benzene caused significant increase in LPO and decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reduced. Treatment with benzene, led to elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. In addition, histological changes like renal tubular damage and vacuolar degeneration were found in the kidney of benzene treated group. Results show  that 90 days of benzene exposure, induced oxidative damage, alter biochemical parameters and also change remarkable histoarchitecture of kidney tissue which trigger renal toxicity in male rat.
Key words: Benzene, Nephrotoxicity, Oxidative stress, Histopathology
33.  Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5547-5552  (2016)
Study on quantification residue levels  of levofloxacin and  its histopathological changes  in liver  of chicken
Ravikumar, C., Sanganal, J.S., Shivashankar, B.P., Shridhar, N.B., Narayanaswamy, H.D.,  Sunilchandra, U. and Suresh, B.N. 
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College, Hassan - 573202, Karnataka
Abstract: The estimation of the residue  levels of Levofloxafin in  liver  samples  of  chicken was studied  using LC-MS/MS analytical Technique. In the present study, high residue concentration of  levofloxacin 1428.89 ± 0.93µg/kg was observed day one and there was a decrease in residue concentration  to 66.87 ± 0.23 µg/kg on day 10 after final dose administration of levofloxacin in chicken. Histologically, liver showed mild dilatation of sinusoids with focal infiltration of mono nuclear inflammatory cells, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes  and dilatation of sinusoids, congestion of central vein, infiltration of mono nuclear cells  in Group II on day 21 and 28 respectively. The dilatation of sinusoids, vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes and periportal infiltration of mono nuclear cells in group III on day 14. The congestion and oedema of central vein, mild periportal proliferation, infiltration of mono nuclear cells and nodular infiltration of mono nuclear inflammatory cells in the parenchyma with periportal fibrosis, bile duct epithelial proliferation on day 21 and 28 respectively. This study showes that residue level of levofloxacin helps in fixing of MRL (Maximal Residue Limit)and withdrawal period for  liver samples and levofloxacin on  low and  high doses produces the toxic effects on day 14, 21 and 28 days in chicken.
Key words:  Levofloxacin,  Liver , Chicken
 34. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(1): 5553-5557 (2016)
Direct in vitro shoots proliferation of chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) from decapitated embryonic
axes explants
Srivastava, J.
Mahtma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Viswavidyalaya, Chitrakoot- 485334, Satna (M. P.).
 E mail:,
Abstract: A simple, rapid and efficient protocol was developed for direct in vitro multiple shoot induction in chickpea using decapitated embryonic axes explants. Complete plants were regenerated directly without an intervening callus phase from the explants. Different shoot induction media were evaluated for multiple shoot induction from the explants prepared from two different varieties. The shoot induction media were fortified with Benzylaminopurine (BAP), indolbutyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in different concentrations and combinations. Longitudinal sections of the explants were prepared at different time intervals to study the shoot initiation. Individual shoots produced were aseptically excised and sub cultured in the media fortified with 1 mg/L GA3 for shoot elongation. The elongated shoots were grafted on the rootstocks prepared from the seeds of the same cultivar. Healthy plants with no visually detectable phenotypic variations were produced.
Key words: Chickpea, Decapitated embryonic axes
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