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Tissue Research » Past Abstracts
 1. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5559-5566 (2016)
Effects of some essential oils against Culex pipiens larvae
Abo El-Mahasen, M.M.  and Mahmoud, S.H.
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-kom, Egypt.
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 Abstract: Essential oils from linseed, Linum usitatissimum, watercress, Nasturtium officinale and black seed Nigella sativa were evaluated for larvicidal and histological effects against the third instar larvae of the mosquito, Culex pipiens. The results showed that all the three tested oils induced larval mortality, watercress oil was more effective followed by linseed and black seed oil and the effects were dose dependent and time of exposure. Under histological study, the watercress oil induced some lesions in the tested organs; midgut lesion i.e. separation of the epithelial cells from the basement membrane, disruption of some epithelial cells, brush border and the peritrophic membrane. The cuticle and hypodermis became thinner and separated from each other. Most of fat cells were degenerated and vacuolated. Muscle fibers were separated from each other.
Key words: Culex pipiensLinum usitatissimum, Nasturtium officinale, Nigella sativa       
2. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5567- 5574 (2016)
 Effect of dietary arginine and vitamin E on humoral and cell mediated immune response in experimental t-2 mycotoxicosis in Broiler chicken
Ramesh, B K., Narayanaswamy, H.D., Satyanarayana, M.L. and Rao, S.
 Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College, Bengaluru 560 024, India. E. mail:
 Abstract: Day old 144 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups. Groups I, II, III and IV received 0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1ppm of dietary T-2 toxin respectively. Arginine (22 g/kg) and vitamin E (80 mg/kg) were supplemented to Groups V and VI which respectively had 0.0 and 1 ppm of dietary T-2 toxin. The test diets were fed for 0-28 days.  On day 28, humoral immunity was measured as an antibody response to B1 strain of  Newcastle disease virus (NDV). CMI response was assessed by measuring percent CD4+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood and by measuring delayed foot web reaction (DFWR) to killed  S. aureus antigen in sensitised birds at different post challenge intervals. A significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease both in HI titres to NDV and percent CD4+, CD8+ cells was noticed in Group IV whereas the decrease was seen only for HI titres in Group III.  A significantly (P ≤ 0.05) high HI titres and percent CD4+ cells was observed in Group V whereas HI titres,  percent CD4+, CD8+ cells were similar to control in Group VI birds. The foot web thickness peaked at 24h post challenge. A reduction in DFWR was significant (P ≤ 0.05) in Group IV but was similar in Group VI when compared to control birds. The study revealed that dietary inclusion of T-2 toxin for 0-28 days was immunotoxic to broiler chickens at levels equal and higher than 0.5ppm. Dietary ARG and VE supplementation above the recommended NRC levels was found to be immunostimulatory.

Key words: T-2 toxin, Arginine, Vitamin E, Immune response, Broiler chicken
3. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5575-5578  (2016)
 Detection of matrix metallo proteinase - 2  in  layer chicken
Prakash Krupakaran, R., Balamurugan, T.C., Lakshmi, R.D., Sheeba, A.  and Perumal, P.
ICAR- National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani 797 106  (Nagaland). E. mail:,
 Abstract: A study was carried out to detect the presence of Matrix Metallo Proteinases (MMP) in the serum of commercial layer chicken. Birds were vaccinated and dewormed was done as per the farm schedule. During early morning before feeding the birds, the serum samples were collected from three male and eight female healthy birds in a heparinzed vacutainer from an organized commercial farm. All the serum samples were subjected to gelatin zymography. It was revealed that only two major bands were observed at 72, 62 kDa of MMP-2 in both the groups. The intensity of latent form MMP-2 (72 kDa) was higher than that of active form of MMP-2 (62 kDa). Above the level of MMP-2, no band was observed corresponding to the level of MMP-9. It was further observed that there was no difference between the expression patterns of MMP-2 in both the sexes. It was concluded that the existence of serum MMP was confirmed by the presence of both the forms of active and latent form of MMP-2 and it was further inferred that MMP-9 could not be detected in the serum of both the sexes.
Key words:, Matrix metallo proteinase, Layer chicken
4. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5579-5582  (2016)
 A comparative study of serum gelatinase in normal and tumour affected dogs through gelatin zymography
Prakash Krupakaran, R., Balamurugan, T. C., Sheeba, A., Lakshmi, R. D.  and  Perumal, P.
 ICAR- National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani 797 106  (Nagaland). E. mail:,
 Abstract: A comparative study was undertaken to assess the gelatinase activity in the sera of normal and tumour affected dogs through gelatin zymography. In gelatin zymography, the presence of three major bands 220, 92kDa of MMP-9 and 72kDa of MMP-2 were confirmed. The intensity of active form of 92kDa of MMP-9 was comparatively thinner in sera of tumour affected than in normal dog. The intensity of 220, 92 kDa of MMP-9 were 3-4 times higher than that in normal dog. But the intensity of 72kDa MMP-2 band was slightly higher in sera samples of tumour affected than normal one. Latent form of 220 kDa band was comparatively thinner than 92kDa of MMP-9. The latent form 72 kDa of MMP-2 was observed in the serum of normal dog samples. There was more up-regulation of MMP-9 mediated through MMP-2 activity was observed in tumour affected dog. It was concluded that the intensity of MMP-9 and MMP-2 was higher in tumour affected than in normal dogs and it could be used as a potential early diagnostic method/marker in the determination of canine tumour progression.
Key words: Serum Gelatinase, Tumour, Dog
5. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5583-5586 (2016)
Assessment of gelatinases activity in cystic fluid of Coenurus gaigeri of goat origin using gelatin zymography
Arunkumar, S., Prakash Krupakaran, R. and  Perumal, P.
ICAR- National  Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani 797 106 (Nagaland). E. mail:,
Abstract: Coenurus gaigericysts (a larval stage of Taenia gaigeri) were collected from goats slaughtered at local abattoir and was washed thoroughly with PBS (pH 7.4). The cyst fluid was aspirated, centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 minutes at 4°C and the supernatants were used for further study. On gelatin zymographic analysis, the prominent bands at 220 kDa MMP-9, 135 kDa MMP-9, 92 kDa MMP-9,72 kDa MMP-2 and 40 kDa MMP-2 were observed in the cystic fluid of Coenurus gaigeri. Among the five bands, 92 kDa MMP-9 band was showing the greatest gelatinolytic activity. The 72 kDa MMP-2 band was also very prominent in cystic fluid of Coenurus gaigeri and found along with its active forms (62 kDa) as doublets. The relative amount of 92 kDa MMP-9 band was found to be four times greater than that of 72 kDa MMP-2.
Key words: Coenurus gaigeri, Gelatinases, Goat
6. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5587-5589 (2016)
 Biochemical analysis of male sterile and fertile anthers in Pigeonpea
Khule, A.A., Kajale, D.B., Parmar, S.K., Patel, J,B. and  Acharya, S.
Center of  Excellence for Research on Pulses, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sradarkrushinagar 385506 (Gujarat). E. mail:,
 Abstract: The biochemical analysis of male sterile, maintainer and fertility restorer lines of pigeonpea revealed that there were significant differences in pollen fertility between all these lines. It was ranged from 2 to 3 per cent in sterile lines. It was higher in restorer as compared to sterile lines and its fertile counterpart. The anther protein content of maintainer line was 14 % higher than the sterile line. The fertility restorer evinced 20 and 7 per cent higher protein content in anther than the male sterile and maintainer line respectively. Thus it seems that protein content in anther can be used as a tool for phenotyping male sterility/fertility/restoration in pigeonpea.
Key words: Male Anther, Pigeonpea,
7. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5591-5596 (2016)
 Molecular characterization of maize land races using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers
Lahane, P.S., Khule, A.A., Jadhav, S.S., Parmar, S.K., Patil, M.B., Taware, S.D. and  Ravidrababu, Y.
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, C.P. College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar
Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sradarkrushinagar 385506. E. mail:,
Abstract: An insight on diversity and relationships among germplasm is important in any breeding program for crop improvement. The main objectives of our study were to determine the level of genetic diversity within land races collected from tribal areas of north Gujarat state. In this study, 10 RAPD markers were used to finger print twenty five maize land races to assess the genetic diversity, genetic relationships, and their population structure. In RAPD analysis, the total of 10 primers amplified 69 fragments with an average of 6.9 fragments, out of these 50 were polymorphic with an average 5.0 fragments per primer and the size of amplified fragments ranged from 130 (OPA-01) to 1380 (OPA-04). The per cent polymorphism across the maize land races ranged from 28.57-100 per cent with an average 73.01 per cent. The primers OPA-06 and OPA-14 produced distinct RAPD patterns (100 % polymorphism). The PIC (Polymorphic Information Content) value ranged from 0.646 to 0.856 with an average of 0.809. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.075 to 0.313. The maximum similarity coefficient (0.313) was observed between Abhapur Local and Rajgol Local followed by Sebaliya Local and Ghoneshwar Local (0.301). Whereas, lowest similarity index (0.075) was observed in between Bharmiya Local and Ambai Gadha Local followed by Sebaliya Local and Ambai Gadha Local (0.080). The present study indicated that RAPD markers are suitable for the assessment of genetic diversity among different maize land races studied. Overall, the results obtained in this study might be useful in future maize improvement programmes through the selection of diverse parents for heterosis breeding based on the phenotypic traits as well as on the molecular markers.
Key wards: Zea mays, RAPD, Molecular characterization, Land races
8. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5597-5606 (2016)
An improved protocol for agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration of Indica rice (Oryza sativa l. var. Rajendra kasturi)
Prasad, B.D.,  Kumar, P., Sahni, S., Kumar, V., Kumari, S. Kumar, P. and Pal, A.K.
Department of Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour -813210  (Bihar).
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Abstract: Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is widely adopted in rice as it is inexpensive and produces fewer transgene copies integration in genome compared to other methods of transformation. However, this method requires an efficient protocol for callus induction and regeneration after Agrobacterium infection. Recently, efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of japonica, and very few indica rice varieties. Unfortunately, the local indica rice varieties have remained untouched as they are recalcitrant to regeneration, leading to low transformation efficiency. In present investigation, an improved Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol has been developed for local indica rice var. Rajendra Kasturi. The highest frequency of callus induction was observed in MS salt supplemented with 2,4-D (2.25 mg/L). Co-cultivation of Agrobacterium with rice calli on medium containing 100 µM acetosyringone has yielded maximum transformation efficiency. The selection of transformed calli was done on medium containing 10 mg/l phosphinothricin (PPT) at which untransformed calli couldn’t regenerate. Maximum regeneration frequency was observed on MS salt containing 2.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1.25 mg/l kinetin along with 30 g/l sucrose and 1.5% sorbitol. Optimum rooting was observed in 2/5th strength of MS salts with 2 g of clarigel. The integration of transgene in T1 and T2 generation plants was confirmed by PCR. RT-PCR analysis confirms the expression of BAR gene transcripts in T2 transgenic rice. Using this improved protocol indica rice variety var. Rajendra Kasturi was successfully transformed and raised to a full grown plant within 3 months of time.
Key words: Oryza sativa L., Agrobacterium, Genetic transformation,
9. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5607-5611 (2016)
Morphological and histological study of the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo
Jadhav,  J.  and Kengar,  S.
Cell Biology Section, Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416 004  (Maharashtra). 
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Abstract: In present study, morphological and histological structure of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of domestic chick (Gallus gallus) were assessed between days 4 and 11 of embryonic development. Natural CAM at day 4 showed normal morphology with clear directional pattern of blood vessels; continued with day 6 where major and minor CAM vessels were observed with dendritic branching pattern formed by process of vasculogenesis (derived from angioblasts) and angiogenesis (sprouting of existing vessels). Vessels were designated as primary, secondary, and tertiary vessels. The vascular density was  increased with tortuosity at 11 days of incubation. Histologically the CAM showed three distinct layers; the ectoderm with numerous small capillaries, the stromal mesoderm with sparsely arranged fibrous tissue and the endoderm with normal architecture. CAM at early stage of development could be used for cardiovascular and toxicity studies. 
Key words: Chorioallantoic membrane, Gallus gallus
10. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5613-5620  (2016)
Expression profile and localization of regucalcin in buffalo fetal fibroblasts and Wharton’s jelly stem cells
Harikrishna, P., Bhure, S.K., Parmar, M.S., Harikumar, S., Shende, A.M. and Sharma, G.T.
Protein Research Laboratory, Division of Animal Biochemistry;  ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly  (U.P.). E. mail:,
Abstract: Stem cell research is an emerging field in regenerative medicine, unique properties of stem cells for unlimited self renewal and differentiation potential into various lineage(s) upon receiving the proper signal, makes them an appropriate candidate for treating those clinical conditions which do not respond well with the conventional treatment/s. With the advent of proteomic tools and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in these cells can be studied in detail for understanding the cellular and developmental behavior. There could be number of proteins expressed in stem cells that are yet to be discovered. Regucalcin/Senescence Marker Protein-30 (RGN/SMP-30), a multifunctional protein has been documented to play pivotal roles in calcium homeostasis and ascorbic acid biosynthesis besides having anti-prolific and anti-apoptotic functions. The present study was aimed to investigate the expression of RGN in buffalo derived Wharton’s jelly (BWJ) and fetal fibroblast (BFF). Expression of RGN was analyzed by SYBR green based real time PCR, immunocytochemistry and western blot assay in these cells. This is the first report describing the expression of RGN in buffalo fetal derived fibroblasts and Wharton’s jelly stem cells. We also document the expression pattern of RGN in different passages in BWJ and BFF.
Key words: Regucalcin, Fetal fibroblast stem cells,  Wharton’s jelly, Buffalo
11. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5621-5627  (2016)
In vitro selection for fusarium wilt tolerance in pomegranate by screening against fusaric acid
Ghoghare, D.S., Chimote, V.P., Pawar, B.D., Kale, A.A., Raghuwanshi, K.S. and Jadhav, A.S.
State Level Biotechnology Centre, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri  413722 (Maharashtra).
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Abstract: Fusarium wilt of pomegranate causes severe losses in established orchards with disease going undetected at early stages. The objective of this study is to standardize in vitro screening protocol for Fusarium wilt tolerance in pomegranate using seedlings and detached leaves for identification of Fusarium wilt tolerant pomegranate genotypes. In the current investigation four different levels of fusaric acid were attempted in pomegranate to identify critical levels for toxin bioassay. In 10 ppm treatment genotype specific responses were observed in seedlings of 16 genotypes assayed. In vitro assayed seedlings produced symptoms similar to Fusarium wilt infection. Kabul and Code-429 exhibited resistance on in vitro seedling assay, while nine varieties exhibited complete susceptibility. In detached leaf assay of 58 genotypes, highest tolerance was recorded in Kabul Yellow, Shirin Anar and Nana genotypes, followed by Daru, Kabul and S-1 (Soft). On 24th day of assay complete wilting was observed in forty two genotypes. No pomegranate genotype was immune to Fusarium wilt disease. In vitro screening will enable in identification of wilt resistant pomegranate genotypes.
Key words: Pomegranate, Fusarium wilt, Fusaric acid.
12. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5629-5632 (2016)
Study on incidence of mammary tissue carcinogenesis in conjugated linoleic acid fed female Wister rats.
Banupriya, S., Kathirvelan, C. and Tyagi, A.K.
Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal  637 002 (Tamil Nadu). E. mail:,
Abstract: A study was carried out to investigate anti carcinogeneic effect of Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding on mammary gland carcinogenesis in rats. Female wistar rats of 21 day’s old were taken for the study and animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of  thirty animals in each group. In group I, animals were  fed with soybean oil based diet where as group II animals were fed with CLA ghee based diet, respectively.  Soybean oil and CLA ghee were included at 10 per cent level in the animal diet. Feeding of test diets were started on the day of weaning. Animals were given 7, 12 dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) at 5 mg per animal as single dose by oral intubation at the age of 55th day and test diets were continued upto 32 weeks after DMBA administration. At the end of 32 weeks, all animals were sacrificed, tumour data recorded and histopathology done. Tumour incidence in group I and III were 83.33 and 46.07 per cent respectively.  Histopathology revealed fibroma, adenoma, fibro adenoma in all the groups whereas in group I showed adenocarcinoma. Therefore, results of present study showed the conjugated linoleic acid not only inhibited benign type tumour but malignant tumour as well.
Key words:  Conjugated linoleic acid, Mammary cancer
13.Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5633-5636  (2016)
Histological and cytological changes in uterus and conception rate in postpartum cows with methyl ergometrine maleate
Alagar, S.,  Selvaraju, M., Napolean, R.E. and Doraisamy, K.A.
Department of Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics, Veterinary College and Research Institute,  Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Namakkal  637 002 (Tamil Nadu).  E. mail:,
Abstract: On day 2 Postpartum 18 Holstein Friesian crossbred cows were divided equally into 2 groups as group I (treatment) and II (control), and were treated intramuscularly with 5 mg of methyl ergometrine maleate and 5 ml of normal saline respectively. In group I cows on day 10 postpartum, the endometrium showed involution process with mild neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration. The mucin secretion was also noticed. On day 30 postpartum, group I cows had increased glandular activity with extensive lymphocytic infiltration and increased vascular spaces. There was a reduction in percentages of PMN cells and increase in lymphocytes in treated group from day 2 to day 30 postpartum.  The first service, second service and overall first and second service conception rates were 11.11, 33.33 and 44.44 and 11.11, 22.22 and 33.33 in group I and II, respectively.  From this study, it is concluded that injection of methyl ergometrine maleate during immediate postpartum period resulted in increased conception rate in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows.
 Key words: Methyl ergometrine maleate, Cows, Conception rate,
14. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5637-5641 (2016)
Identification of uncooked meat species by Polymerase chain reaction
Bhat, M.M.,  Dobi, M.R., Paddar, T.A.,  Jalal, H.,  Adil, S., Sheikh, F.D. and Salahuddin, M.
Division of Livestock Products Technology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir Shuhama, Alusteng, Srinagar.  E. mail:,
Abstract: From the last few decades, there has been an exponential growth in the food industry as a result of growing demand for quality food. Nowadays, consumers have become conscious and selectively demand quality food. Ideally, the food offered to the consumers should be safe, free from adulterants and should carry proper label. The present work was carried out to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in uncooked mutton Kebab emulsion by mtDNA based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the emulsions of the product were prepared from mutton, beef and buffalo meat in the ratio of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:5:5, and 98:1:1. The results revealed that the successful amplification of cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species was achieved by the primers used in the multiplex PCR and characteristic band pattern of size 124, 472 and 585bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep were produced respectively. The band intensities of beef and buffalo meat from mixed meat products progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20 to 1%. In conclusion, the multiplex PCR procedure proved to be an effective and reliable method for detecting beef and buffalo meat in mutton Kebab up to as low as 1% level of adulteration, thus could be used as an important tool in the quality control of commercial meat products.
Key words: Beef, Buffalo meat, Mutton
15.Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5643-5648 (2016)
Cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of leptospirosis from urban populations of Equines
 Bojiraj, M.,  Porteen, K., Gunaseelan, L.  and  Suresh Kannan, S.
Thanthai Roever Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development, Perambalur 621 115 (Tamil Nadu).
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Abstract: A total of 156 samples (152 Sera and 4 Urine) was collected from horses from various urban parts of Tamil Nadu (India) to ascertain the status of leptospirosis and during sample collection various particulars like breed, age, sex, vaccination history were recorded. Collected Sera and urine samples were screened for the presence of Leptospira organisms by dark field microscopy (DFM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting Lip L 32 gene. Sera samples were subjected to microscopic agglutination Test (MAT) for antibody detection against 12 predominant serovars. Our study showed Leptospira organism’s with 1.3% and 15.1% positivity by DFM and PCR respectively in serum samples, whereas none of the urine samples showed positive by DFM and PCR. Antibody detection by MAT, showed seroprevalence with 46% positivity and most predominant serovars identified in the study were Australis and Autumnalis. Seroprevalence of 46% with uncommon serovars like Australis and Autumnalis in equines warrants the need for routine screening of these animals, thereby circulating serovars, carrier status and appropriate control strategies can be devised considering the zoonotic potential of this pathogen.
Key words: Leptospirosis, Lip L 32 gene
16. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5649-5654 (2016)
Molecular characterisation of toll like receptors 2 gene and its association with somatic cell count in Deoni cattle
Mundhe, U.T.,  Das, D.N., Gandhi, R.S. and Soumya, N.P.
Animal Genetics Laboratory, Dairy Production Section, Southern Regional Station, Indian Council  of  Agricultural Research- National Dairy Research Institute, Bengaluru (Karnataka). E. mail:,
Abstract: Present study was carried out to investigate genetic polymorphism of TLR2 gene of exon 1 and exon 2 and their association with somatic cell count in Deoni cattle by PCR- RFLP. Blood samples and milk samples were collected from 70 randomly selected, lactating Deoni cattle from National Dairy Research Institute, Southern Regional Station, Bengaluru, hence, DNA was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. PCR standardization was carried out for amplification of region of exon1, exon 2.2. exon 2.3, exon 2.4, exon 2.5 and exon 2.6 using published primers [1]. PCR – RFLP was carried out using HaeIII, Mn II, Hinc II, EcoRV, PStI and Bsty I restriction enzymes respectively. Sequence analysis showed 8 single nucleotide polymorphism in the coding region of TLR 2 gene, which includes 5 transitions (G12134A, C12153T, C12260T, T12471C, T12501C exon 2.5) and 3 transversions (G11391T, T11424A exon 2.3), (C12441G exon 2.5). Lack of polymorphism was revealed under exonic regions of studied gene through PCR-RFLP.
Key words: TLR2 gene, Deoni cattle
17. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5655-5659 (2016)
Association of polymorphism in Exon 3.3 toll like receptor 4 gene with milk somatic cell count in Ddeoni and Holstein Friesian crossbred cattle
Chauhan, S.S., Das, D.N., Mundhe, U.T. and Soumya, N.P.
Animal Genetics Laboratory, Dairy Production Section, Southern Regional Station, Indian Council  of Agricultural Research- National Dairy Research Institute, Bengaluru (Karnataka). E. mail:,
Abstract: Toll like receptor 4 gene is associated with resistance against infectious diseases in bovines. It plays an important role in the recognition of mycobacterial antigens [1] mediating cytokine production and stimulation of host defence mechanism [2]. Present study was conducted in Deoni (20) and Holstein Friesian (80) crossbred cattle with the aim of identification of genetic polymorphism by using Alu I PCR-RFLP technique in exon 3.3 of TLR 4 gene. The entire TLR 4 exon 3 sequence was amplified using primer sets. In the studied population, digestion of amplified product with Alu I restriction enzyme exhibited two alleles viz., A and B and three genotypes AA, AB and BB respectively. In this study Deoni cattle, on allele A (0.55) was predominant over allele B (0.45) but in case of HF crossbred cattle frequency of B (0.61) allele was higher than A allele (0.39). In Deoni cattle, genotypes frequency of heterozygote AB (0.7) was found more than both homozygotes AA (0.2) and BB (0.1), whereas in HF crossbreds, the overall frequency of homozygotes AA (0.16) and BB (0.39) observed were lower than the heterozygote AB (0.45). The PCR amplified product of 511 bp from representative samples was sequenced and the sequencing results were further analysed by Clustal W alignment software which revealed the transition of thymine to cytosine at position of 9423 in BB genotype in both the breeds. The influence of bovine TLR 4 gene exon 3.3 allelic variations on somatic cell count showed significant effect (p<0.05) in both Deoni (Bos indicus) and HF crossbred cows which revealed significantly higher somatic cell count in cows with AA genotype as compared to BB genotype. Chi- square test revealed that the both Deoni and HF crossbred were under HW equilibrium and are stable.
Key words:  Deoni cows, HF crossbred, Polymorphism, Toll like receptor.
18. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5661-5666 (2016)
Spontaneous canine mammary neoplasia: A clinico-pathological  study
Mohapatra, A.K., Das, D., Panda, S.K., Jena, B.and Singh, J.
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003  (Odisha).  E. mail:
Abstract: The present research work was undertaken to study the incidence as well as clinico-pathological parameters such as haematological, biochemical along with cytological and histopathological changes associated with spontaneous mammary tumours in dogs. These animals were presented to us with complaints of mammary tumours. The haematological and serum biochemical parameters were measured and compared with healthy control group of animals (n=6). The nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples were collected from the tumour mass for cytological examination. Surgically excised mammary tumours were processed for histopathological examination. No significant difference was observed between the healthy control group and mammary tumour affected dogs with respect to haematological and serum biochemical parameters. Cytological revealed epithelial cell clusters with more or less uniform two-dimensional sheets of neoplastic cells in case of adenoma and marked anisocytosis, anisokaryosis, pleomorphism, coarse chromatin, hyperchromatic nuclei, and increased nucleus to cytoplasmic ratio in the cases of carcinoma. Based on histopathological examination which is considered as a gold standard for diagnosis of cancer, mammary tumours were classified into various histological types such as adenoma, tubular adenocarcinoma, papillary cystic adenocarcinoma and malignant mixed types of mammary tumour. It is evident  from the study that cytological and histopathological examinations are quite significant in the diagnoses of spontaneous mammary tumours.
Key words: Mammary tumour, Canine
19. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5667-5669 (2016)
Serum mineral changes in postpartum cows treated with uterotonic drugs
Alagar, S.,  Selvaraju, M., Napolean, R.E.and Doraisamy, K.A.
Department of Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Namakkal 637 002 (Tamil Nadu). E. mail:,
Abstract: Thirty six  Postpartum Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows aged between 2nd and 5th lactations were selected and randomly divided into 4 experimental groups viz., group I, II, III and IV (control). On day 2 postpartum, cows of group I, II, III and IV were treated with an intramuscular injection of 25 mg PGF2α , 5 mg methyl ergometrine maleate, 50 IU oxytocin and 5 ml normal saline, respectively. All the cows were treated with CIDR AND PGF2α   and AI was done at induced oestrus. The mean serum calcium and phosphorus levels in pregnant and non-pregnant cows showed increasing trend from day 2 postpartum to induced oestrus in all the groups but reduction in concentration of these constituents was observed from induced oestrum to day 10 post AI in pregnant and non-pregnant cows.
Key words: Serum minerals, Postpartum cow
20. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5671-5677 (2016)
Alelic and genotypic frequencies of FECB gene polymo-rphisms and their association with body biometric parameters in Chhotanagpuri lambs
Oraon, T., Singh, D.K., Ghosh, M., Guru, T.N., Kullu, S.S. and Singh, L.B.
Ranchi Veterinary College, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi 834 006 (Jharkhand). 
E. mail:,
Abstract: Body biometrics is a good indicator for future growth and productivity. FecB gene plays key role in regulating prolificacy and growt h performances in animals. As growth is directly correlated with linear body measurements, the FecB gene may alsoinfluence different biometric parameters. Therefore, the current study was conducted to identify genotypic polymorphisms in FecB gene and their association with different morphometric parameters. Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis documented sixgenotypicvariants at locus-1(“AA”, “AB”, “BB”) and locus-2 (“CC”, “CD”, “DD”). “BB” genotype was found to have significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on body height, body length, heart girth and pouch girth especially around weaning age (12 weeks). However different genotypes at locus-2 did not show any significant association with these parameters. Genotypes at locus-1 and locus-2 did not show any significant(P ≤ 0.05) effect on ear length of lambs at any growth stage. Although tail length was found to have significant association with lambs having “CC” and “DD” genotypes at birth, however no such association was observed in pre- and post-weaning growth stages. So, lambs of “BB” genotype were found to have better biometric characters and can be useful in selection programme for better future productivity.
Key words: FecB genepolimorhism, Lambs
21. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5679-5684 (2016)
Effect of higher temperature on leaf anatomy of heat tolerant and heat susceptible wheat genotypes   (Tricticum aestivum L.) by scanning electron microscopy
Ramani, H.R., Bambharolia, R.P., Sanghani, A.O. and Mandavia, M.K.
Main cotton Research Station, Navsari Agriculture University, Surat-395007(Gujarat). E. mail:
Abstract: A heat tolerant (GW-190) and heat susceptible (J-2010-11) wheat genotypes were selected and grown up to tillering and grain filling stages. The plants were subjected to two groups: control and heat treatments.  40°C and 45°C of heat treatments were given for 2 h and 4 h of duration under artificial heat house. Scanning electron microscopy of wheat leaves showed that analysis of variance indicated significant differences for stomatal length existed among heat tolerant and susceptible genotypes as well significant differences were found for stomatal width among heat tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Also anatomy was destructed under higher temperature in both genotypes leaf but level of destruction was higher in susceptible as compared to tolerant genotypes.
Key words: Heat tolerant, Heat susceptible, Wheat genotypes
22. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5685-5690 (2016)
 In-vitro maturation of porcine oocyte: Effect of antioxidants
Mahanta, N., Bhuyan, D., Biswas, R.K., Kumar, S., Deka, B.C., Dutta, D.J., Das, A., Dewry, R.K., Mahanta, B. and Barman, D.
Department of Animal reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati 781022 (Assam).
E. mail:
Abstract: The present study was carried out involving a total of 723 porcine oocytes to evaluate the effects of addition of 100 μM per ml cystiene, 100 μM per ml cystamine and 25μM per ml β-mercaptoethanol separately as antioxidants in TCM-199 based control medium on in-vitro maturation on of oocytes. Ovaries were collected from local abattoirs immediately after slaughter of the animals and transported to the laboratory in a thermos flask containing normal saline at 37- 39ºC. The base medium comprising 7.5ml TCM-199, 1ml fetal calf serum, 1ml porcine follicular fluid, 100 μl of 0.1 per cent sodium pyruvate and 3 mg gentamicin served as control. Oocytes were cultured in the media with hormones (10 IU hCG + 10 IU PMSG per ml) for the first 22 hrs and without hormones for subsequent 22 hrs of incubation at 39oC under 5 per cent CO2 level and 90-95 per cent humidity. The rates of oocytes with cumulus cells expansion and nuclear maturation were significantly higher (P<0.05) with addition of antioxidants as compared to control but did not differ significantly between antioxidants. It could be concluded from the present study that addition of cysteine, cysteamine or β-mercaptoethanol in maturation medium exerted beneficial effects on in-vitro maturation of porcine oocytes, the highest being recorded for β-mercaptoethanol.
Key words: Porcine oocytes, Antioxidants
23. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5691-5696 (2016)
Decolourization azo dyes using culture filtrate of newly isolated Crinipellis sp. DK 3
Kale, S. K. and Deshmukh, A.G.
Nagarjun Medicinal Plants Garden, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Krishi Nagar, Akola- 444 104, (Maharashtra).
E. mail:,
Abstract: The present contribution deals with azo dyes decolourizing ability of Crinipellis spp. DK3 isolated from University campus of Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. Crude laccase from Crinipellis sp. DK3 produced in submerged culture condition was evaluted for dye decolourization. Crinipellis sp. DK3 and Pycnoporus sanguineus (MTCC-137) showed laccase activity of 21.34±1.04 U/ml and 14.82±0.64 U/ml respectively, while no laccase detected in P. chrysosporium (NCIM-1197). Phloroglucinol was proved to be the most efficient mediator in decolourization of congo red (96%) and methyl blue (82.89%). In acid red 27 decolourization, it was found that redox mediator not required for decolorization. nucleotide sequence of Crinipellis sp. DK3 was submitted to Gene bank under accession number JN900255.
Key words: Azo dye, Crinipellis, Decolourization, Laccase
24. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5697-5704 (2016)  
Effect of gestational hypercholesterolaemia on prostaglandin-induced uterine contractility  in late pregnant mouse uterus
Padol, A.R.,  Parida, S.,  Sukumaran, S.V., Kesavan, M., Sadam, A., Srivastav, V., Thakur, U.S. and Telang, A.G.
Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, Bareilly  (U.P.)
E. mail:,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of gestational hypercholesterolaemia on the prostaglandin-induced uterine response in late pregnant mouse uterus. Gestational hypercholesterolaemia was developed in Swiss albino mice feeding a diet (HFHC diet) containing 1.25 % cholesterol, 0.5 % sodium cholate and 15 % fat for 6 weeks before mating and continuing up to the 19th day of gestation. Animals were sacrificed on the 19th day to determine the lipid profile in plasma and to estimate the total prostaglandin level in uterine tissue by ELISA. PGF2α receptor (FPR) expression was assessed by Western blot and the PGF2α response which was elicited by tension experiments. Lipid profile in control and HFHC diet fed animals demonstrated a significant increase in total cholesterol, HDL and LDL level in the latter with no alteration in triglycerides level. Total prostaglandin level was less in HFHC diet fed animals compared to the animals fed with the standard diet. FP receptor expression was not influenced by hypercholesterolaemia. Concentration-dependent response to PGF2α in control animals (Emax 302.1±18.51%; pD2 6.58 ± 0.24) was not significantly different from that of HFHC diet fed animals (Emax 227.7± 14.1%; pD2 6.24 ± 0.23). The results of the present study suggested that uterine prostaglandin levels are lowered by gestational hypercholesterolaemia but PGF2α receptor protein expression, as well as its contractile response, is not affected.
Key words: Gestation, Hypercholesterolaemia, PGF2α, FP receptor
25. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5705-5711 (2016)
Heat waves in non-conventional areas, climate change and disease load: A review
Bettencourt Pires, M.A. Vilemar Magalhães, J. and Gupta, P.D.
Department of Surgery and Human Morphology /Anatomy, Nova Medical School, Lisbon, Portugal. E. mail:,
Abstract: The life style of human beings is often guided by the local environment. The newly identified energy pollutants exert adverse influences on the health and performances of humans all over the globe. Due to global warming, the thermal effects can cause the death of plants, animals and humans. The authors review the human aspects of thermal stress disorder, such as heatstroke and dehydration, their causes, effects, management and preventive measures.
Key words: Heat waves, Climatic changes, Disease
26. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5713-5718 (2016)
 Genetic response of plants to drought, cold and heat stress: A review
Ahmad, M., Mehraj, M., Dar, R.A., Wani, B.A., Mehraj, U., Maqbool, A. and Mir, M.A.
Directorate of Agriculture, Srinagar 191 121 (JK). E. mail:,
Abstract: The increased abiotic stresses were severe threat to world food security paving to hunger death. To combat this stress full situation crops with high tolerance should be developed. Crop improvement mainly depends on the study of traits that increase yield levels, simultaneously resisting abiotic stress. It is known that the expression of the trait is purely under control of gene whose expression is temporal, spatial and stimulus specific. The molecular dissection of each tolerance mechanism at transcriptional, post transcriptional, translational and signaling pathway level helps in easy understanding of the tolerance behavior of traits. The identification of functional markers associated with abiotic stress tolerance and manipulation of key functional or regulatory genes through molecular approaches like genetic engineering assist crop improvement with in short time. Hence, in this review we would summarize stimulus perception, signal transduction pathway (MAP kinase and ROS pathways), formation of regulatory protein, gene expression, synthesis of osmolytes (proline, glycine betain, fructans) and other event that takes place under drought, heat and cold stresses. The review also designed to makes reader any easy understanding of gene expression cascade under stress.
Key words: Genetic response, Heat drought cold stress
27. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5719-5725 (2016)
Novel plant breeding techniques in wheat improvement: A mini review
Ahmad, M., Mir, S.D., Zaffar. G., Lone, A.A., Rather. M.A. Dar, Z.A. Mehraj, U. and Mir, M.A.
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture Wadura, Srinagar, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir Shalimar campus, Srinagar 191 121. E. mail:
Abstract: The augmentation of conventional breeding of wheat with the use of marker-assisted selection and transgenic plants promises to facilitate substantial increases in food production. However, knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of plants will be extremely important for interpreting the information from molecular markers and deriving new and more effective paradigms in plant breeding. In particular, significant benefits will be derived through the transfer of genes important for crop protection and crop quality. However, rapid and cost effective development, and adoption of biotechnology-derived products will depend on developing a full understanding of the interaction of genes within their genomic environment, and with the environment in which their conferred phenotype must interact.Thus to keep winning the war on food front, the Green Revolution technologies need to be supplemented and complimented by the nascent gene revolution technologies. We need to develop and effectively utilise gene revolution technologies for ushering in an evergreen revolution.
Key words: Biotechnology, Wheat improvement
28. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5727-5732 (2016)
Contribution of biotechnology to higher maize productivity: A mini review
Mir, S.D., Ahmad, M., Zaffar. G., Lone, A.A., Rather. M. A., Dar, Z.A. Mehraj, U. and Mir, M.A.
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture Wadura, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of  Kashmir Shalimar campus, Srinagar 191 121. E. mail:,
 Abstract: In the context of current climate variability, as well as predicted increases in mean temperature and annual precipitation, what do recent advances in agricultural biotechnology offer the genetic enhancement of agricultural crops so that they are better adapted to biotic and abiotic stresses, leading to higher crop productivity? Developing crops that are better adapted to abiotic stresses is important for food production in many parts of the world today. Anticipated changes in climate and its variability, particularly extreme temperatures and changes in rainfall, are expected to make crop improvement even more crucial for food production. Biotechnology approaches, molecular breeding and genetic engineering, and their integration with conventional breeding to develop verities for Maize, Sorghum and Barley crops that is more tolerant of abiotic stresses. In addition to a multidisciplinary approach, we also examine some constraints that need to be overcome to realize the full potential of agricultural biotechnology for sustainable crop production to meet the demands of a projected world population of nine billion in 2050.
Key words: Biotechnology, Maize improvement
29. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5733-5735 (2016)
Impact of heat shock protein (HSP) expression in swine: A review
Sarma, H., Puro, K., Kumar, A., Mahanta, N., Das, M., Dewry, R.K., Rajkhowa, D. J. and Sen. A.
Division of Livestock Production, Indian Council ofAgricultural Research for NEH Region Umiam793103 (Meghalaya),
Abstract: The aim of this review was to summaries the impacts of heat shock protein expression on swine production which is trigged by elevated temperature or other stress like transportation, weaning, exercise, exposure of the cell to toxins etc. Heat stress promotes expression of heat shock proteins in pig adipocytes. The transcript levels of multiple HSP (HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) are greater in heat stress condition compared with control. The decrease in HSP levels in myocardial cells may indicate that the transport stress may have overcharged the repair mechanism of cells Transportation increases the expression of HSP 70 in the kidney.  The expression of HSP in the gastrointestinal tract is modulated by weaning; the results depending on the HSP, GIT site and time post weaning. We also review that heat stress during the summer decrease semen quality in Boars.
Key words: Heat shock protein, Swine stress
30. Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 16(2): 5737-5740 (2016)
Polypoid cystitis in a dog: A case report
Nandini, M.K., Rajkumar, K. and Ansar Kamran, C.
Department of  Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College, KVAFSU, Hebbal, Bangalore 560024. E.mail:,
 Abstract: Polypoid cystitis is a relatively uncommon disease of bladder characterized by inflammation, epithelial proliferation, and development  of polypoid mass or masses without histopathologic evidence of neoplasia. This report describes clinical, ultrasonographic and histopathological features of polypoid cystitis in a dog. A 2 year old male dog was presented to Veterinary college hospital, Hebbal, Bangalore, India with history of stranguria, pollakiuria, and hematuria of 10 weeks duration. Abdominal ultrasonographic examination revealed severe bladder wall thickening. On urine culture E. coli was isolated with more than 1,00,000 cfu/ml. Pneumocystography of the urinary bladder revealed growth in the bladder. Surgical excision biopsy sample from the bladder was subjected to histopathological evaluation. Histopathologically, hyperplastic stratified squamous epithelium with focal areas of ulceration and subepithelium showed fibroblastic stroma with mixed inflammatory infiltrate and congested blood vessels.  Based on clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, gross and histopathologic examinations the case was diagnosed as polypoid cystitis. Antibiotic therapy combined with extensive resection of the mucosa resulted in completed resolution polypoid lesions and clinical signs.
Key words: Polypoid cystitis, Dog
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