Indexed in Chemical Abstracts, USA; ProQuest Science Journals, USA; ProQuest Biology Journals USA; ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, USA; Indian Science Abstracts (IAS); Medical and Aromatic Plant Abstracts, New Delhi.
Tissue Research » Past Abstracts

1.    Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research  17(2): 6073-6084 (2017)
 


Imbalance of gut microbiota induces cancer:  A review

Sawicka, B., Kaid Johar, S. R.,  Sood, P. P.  and Gupta, P. D.

Department of Plant Production Technology and Commodity Sciences, University of Life Sciences,
Lublin, Poland
Abstract: Human intestine harbors both pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro- organisms, the later generally have symbiotic relations with the host. In a healthy person a ratio between them most of the time remains constant;  however, the ratio is disturbed due to many reasons, including change in dietary conditions. The chronic imbalance between the two groups may turn out to be a serious health problem for the host. Many studies have indicated that gut microbiota is responsible for the health and integrity of the colon but if the beneficial bacterial population is decreased then not only, conditions for development for cancer and many other inflammatory and autoimmune diseases intensifies.

Key words: Gut microbiota, Cancer


2.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research  17(2): 6085-6094 (2017)
 
Plants as potential cancer therapeutics:  A review

 Radhika, J.,  Sridharan, G., Sivaganesh, M. and Pradee
p, V.

SRRCARB, Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College (Autonomous), (Sri Ranganatha Paduka  Vidhyalaya Trust), Tiruchirappalli 620005. E.  mail:  radiarun2005@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Cancer can be defined as the continuous, abnormal and uncontrollable growth of cells. It is an umbrella term covering a surfeit of conditions characterized by unscheduled and uncontrolled cellular proliferation. Normal cells are regulated by a group of signals to both divide and differentiate into a new cell or to die. Cancer cells are not regulated by these signals and hence proliferate uncontrollably. Most anticancer drugs prescribed are anti proliferative affecting the mitosis of normal cells. Ayurveda has been in practice since the vedic period. It describes any disease as an imbalance in the three dhoshas –vatta, pitta and kapha. The principle behind any ayurvedic treatment is the restoration the humoral balance leading to recovery from all types of ailments.  Ayurveda defines cancer as a growth in the body outside the rule of life force.The search for anti-cancer agents from plant sources started in the 1950s with the discovery and development of the vinca alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine, and the isolation of the cytotoxic podophyllotoxins. Secondary metabolites like polyphenols, terpenes and alkaloids have been reported to possess antimutagenic and anticancer properties.  The use of plant drugs as a therapeutic agent will reduce the financial burden of the developing countries. Hence an attempt has been made to present a review of some plants that possess therapeutic value and used to treat cancer traditionally.

Key words: Medicinal plants, Cancer


3.    Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6095-6102 (2017)

Anticholinergic effect of Datura stramonium leaf extract and Chlorpyriphos in the gills of Catla catla

 Namdeo, A.  and Tembhre, M


MKPC, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462038 (MP). E. mail: m_tembhre@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Datura stramonium and compare it with that of pesticide chlorpyriphos (CPF) on the acetylcholinestrase (AChE) inhibitory activity, kinetics and its recovery and histopathology in gills of Catla catla.  The fish divided into four groups, each containing 30 fishes. They were exposed to different treatments viz., Datura stramonium leaf extract alone, chlorpyriphos alone and combination of Datura stramonium leaf extract followed by CPF. AChE activities in the gill of the fish were measured in the experimental and control fish on 96th hours by the colorimetric method of Ellman. D. stramonium showed significant (p > 0.05) inhibition of 47.1% and CPF was assayed which exhibited 21.3% AChE inhibition however, there observed a synergy in inhibition (65%) on exposure of D. stramonium prior to CPF exposure. Recovery of inhibited AChE after 120 hours was 33.5% in case of D. stramonium while it was 8% in case of CPF. AChE inhibition kinetic studies reveal competitive inhibitory nature of both D. stramonium and CPF. The toxic effect of CPF manifested in the gill cells indicated by distortion in the primary lamellae, epithelial lifting, curling of secondary lamellae and swelling at its tips. However, these changes were not evident with ethanolic extract of D.s except with shortening of few secondary lamellae. We conclude that the AChE inhibition by D. stramonium is more potent as compared to CPF.
 
Key words: AChE, D. Stramonium, Chlorpyriphos, Catla catla


4.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6103-6107 (2017)

Nephroprotective effect of Amaranthus spinosus  root extract  in carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in male albino rat

 Kengar, S.,  Thorat, D.  and  Jadhav, J.


Department of Zoology, Yashwantrao Chavan College of Science Karad 415124  (MH). E. mail: sbkengar@ymail.com,

Abstract: In the present study, ethanol extract of Amaranthus spinosus root was investigated for protective activity in CCl4 induced nephrotoxicity in male albino rat by histological assessment. CCl4 induced intoxicated rats were treated with 150, 300 and 450mg/kg body wt dose of ethanol extracts of A. spinosus in 15 days experimental schedule. The results revealed the deleterious histopathological alterations in kidney associated with glomerular and tubular degenerations in CCl4 intoxicated rat. Treatment of A. spinosus roots especially at 450 mg dose protects the kidney by improving disrupted metabolisms and antioxidant defense against CCl4 induced oxidative damage in 15 days protective experimental schedule. The findings support the therapeutic use of A. spinosus in ailments caused by oxidative and altered metabolisms.
 
Key words: Amaranthus spinosus, CCl4, Nephrotoxicity.

5.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6109-6114 (2017)

Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Annona squamosa l., seed extracts

 Bheemagani, A.J.,  Prem Kumar, P.  and Anupalli, R R.

Department of  Genetics and Biotechnology, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500007, Telangana,
 E. mail: arunjyothibheemagani@gmail.com

Abstract: This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antimicrobial potential of seeds of A. squamosa to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains and anti oxidant activity. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol seed extracts of A. squamosa was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity. The results showed remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth against the tested organisms. The microbial activity of the A. squamosa was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these A. squamosa seeds can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.

Key words: A. squamosa, Antioxidant activity, Antimicrobial activity


6.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6115-6118 (2017)

Detection of glandular choristoma in an mesenteric lymph node from an adult crossbred goat with paratuberculosis: A case study

Rajendra Kumar, T.  and Tripathi, B. N.


Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College, Nandinagar, Bidar, 585401, Karnataka. E. mail: drrajendra4428@gmail.com.

Abstract: The present report describes the accidental detection of ectopic intestinal gland like structures with interspersed goblet cells in a mesenteric lymph node from an crossbred adult goat, which was infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The histomorphological features reminded intestinal epithelium, and glandular choristoma was diagnosed. This report is to our knowledge, the first description of glandular choristoma in an Indian goat with paratuberculosis.
 
Key words: Glandular choristoma Paratuberculosis,  Goat.

7.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6119-6121 (2017)

Lipolytic activity during female adult development  of Earias vittella (Fabricius)

Patil, T. C.,  Gejage, R. M. and Bodare, R. D.


Department of Zoology, S. G. M. College, Karad, Dist. Satara- 415 110 (M.S.). E. mail: tejashricjpatil@gmail.com

Abstract: Lipolytic activity during female adult development of E. vittella has been attempted. The female adult developmental period was found to be 18 days. The triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) activity revealed optimum pH 7.7, incubation time 25 minutes, temperature 37 0C, enzyme concentration 1 %, substrate concentration 5 % and Km value 0.18086 × 10-2 mM. A gradual increase in TGL activity was reported from 1 day old female adult to 8-day old female adult and gradual decreases from 8 to 18 day old female adult. The maximum triacylglycerol lipase activity was observed on 8 day of development. The TGL level on one old  female was 51.908 % less than 8-day female adult and on 18-day it was 27.083 % less than 8-day female.
 
Key words: Triacylglycerol lipase, Earias vittella insect.

8.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6123-6129 (2017)

Pathomorphological changes in ochratoxicosis and its amelioration using diatomaceous earth and
 vitamin E in Broiler chickens

Naik, D.,  Satyanarayana, M.L., Yathiraj, S., Narayanswamy,  H.D., Rao, S. and Ramchandra, S G.


Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College, Bidar  585401; E. mail: drdtnaik@gmail.com

Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological and immunosuppressive effects of ochratoxin (OA) in broiler chicken and its amelioration using diatomaceous earth (DAE) and Vitamin E.  The major gross lesions included congestion and hemorrhages of liver, kidney, heart etc.  Lymphoid organs bursa of fabricious, thymus and spleen were edematous and enlarged and occasionally hemorrhagic lesions were also evident. Liver particularly was hard, fibrotic with degenerative changes. Liver and kidney also revealed many retrogressive changes, kidney revealed hydropic degeneration and necrosis. Microscopic lesions, characteristic to ochratoxicosis were prominent in kidneys, liver and lymphoid organs. Dietary inclusion of ochratoxin caused hepato-renal and immunotoxicity in birds. However, supplementation with DAE and Vitamin E was helpful in ameliorating the adverse effects of ochratoxicosis in broilers.

Key words: Ochratoxin, Broiler chicken, Diatomaceous
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9.    Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6131-6134 (2017)

Effect of supplementation of probiotic  curd on lipid profile and body weight  in hypercholesteremic subjects

 Solanki, A. S. and Patel, B. G.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, ASPEE College of Home Science and Nutrition, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar 385506 (Gujarat). E-mail:bgpatel62@gmail.com

Abstract: Considering various health benefits of probiotics on host in protecting against harmful microorganisms and lowering the cholesterol, the present study has been carried out to examine the effect of probiotic curd (dahi)on the blood lipid profile and body weight in hypercholesteremic subjects. Study shows a significant reduction in the lipid profile parameters (TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C) and body weight upon supplementation of probiotic curd.Total Cholesterol levels decreased from 206.50 ± 21.59 to 189.30 ± 18.96 (p<0.01),Triglycerides from 242.80 ± 74.38 to 222.7 ± 69.0 (p<0.01) and LDL cholesterol non-significantly decreased from 107.94 ± 15.86 to 91.96 ± 10.64 whereas HDL cholesterol increased significantly from 50.00 ± 2.48 to 52.80 ± 2.42. It also showed positive significant reduction in body weight from 62.00 ± 4.79 kg to 60.80 ± 4.66kg. Thus, results of this study showed encouraging effects of specific probiotics as food supplements in altering the lipid levels and body weight in hypercholesteremic subjects.

Key words: Probiotic curd, Lipid profile, Hypercholesteremic subjects


10.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6135-6139 (2017)

Serum proteomics in early pregnancy diagnosis  of bovine: A review

 Buragohain, L.


Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati 781022, Assam.
 E. mail: lukumoni.buragohain54@gmail.com

Abstract: Early pregnancy diagnosis in bovine is yet to be addressed by the modern scientific communities across the globe. Latest tools available to diagnose pregnancy in bovine particularly cattle and buffalo are not completely definitive.  Farmers of present era are in great anticipation on modern scientific researches and technologies to get relief from this long-standing problem. It has been augured that recent advances in proteomics, especially in serum proteomics may bring a break through to develop a new tool to solve this challenge by discovering novel biomarker(s). This review emphasized the most promising technological approaches toward decrypting the serum proteome and exertion of the knowledge in reproductive biology would bring an end to the chronic problem of early pregnancy diagnosis by leading to the discovery of novel pregnancy biomarker(s).

Key words: Serum proteome, Pregnancy diagnosis


11.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6141-6145 (2017)

Unexplored and potential applications of lectins in crop protection: A review

 Kale, S.K. and Deshmukh, A.G.


Nagarjun Medicinal Plants Garden, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola-444 104,
E.mail: agd4in@yahoo.com, Cell: 09765013121

Abstract: The need for new and useful compounds to provide assistance and relief in all phases of the human life is continually growing. As there is a need to replace conventional insect control measures which cause pollution and disturb the food chain, several alternative measures such as use of bioinsecticides, lectins and protease inhibitor have been attempted. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are widely distributed in nature and play different roles and functions in biological processes. Lectins manifest a diversity of activities including anti-insect activities, antitumor, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory, which may find applications in many therapeutic areas. Depending on carbohydrate specificity, they can be classified as: glucose/mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, fucose and sialic acid-binding lectins. The hemagglutinating activity assay in presence of free carbohydrates has been proved to be a valuable tool to characterize specificity of lectin. Lectins have deleterious effects against larvae, developing stages and mature forms of insects from orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera and Neuroptera. The particular mechanisms of insecticidal action of lectins remain mysterious, though it has been suggested that this entomotoxic activity seems to depend upon the carbohydrate recognition property they exhibit.

Key words: Lectins, insecticidal, crop protection


12.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6147-6150 (2017)

Current status and future prospects of application  of nanotechnology in stem cell research: A review

 Gade, N.E., Dar, R. M. and Mishra, O. P.


Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science and Animal
 Husbandry, Anjora, Durg 491 001 (Chhattisgarh). E. mail: nitingadeivri@gmail.com

Abstract: Current era of biological research is fascinated with novel tools like nanotechniques that have immense scope in various fields and huge potential applications. Stem cells are employed in regenerative therapies and further their appliance can be potentiated by use of modern techniques. In synergistic approach nanoparticles along with stem cells can improve their quality and utility in regenerative medicine. This review focuses on present use of nanoparticles in stem cell research and its prospects in near future.

Key words: Stem cell, Nanotechnology


13.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6151-6154 (2017)

Pathobiology of Rotaviral diarrhoea in calves: A potent zoonotic threat: A review

 Choudhary, M.,  Choudhary, B. K.,  Ghosh, R. C.,  Giri, D. K.  and Netty, S.

ICAR-National Institute of Biotic Stress Management, Raipur 493 002 (Chhattigarh).  E. mail: chiyamum@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Bovine rotaviruses (BRVs) are the major etiological agents of neonatal calf diarrhoea worldwide. They cause economic losses to the cattle industry because of calf mortality, retarded physical growth, and treatment costs. The majority of group A rotaviruses (GARs) are differentiated based on the origin of host species (human rotavirus, bovine rotavirus and equine rotavirus) although natural GAR cross-species infection and disease have been identified (Mawatari et al., 2004). Recently, Gulati et al., 2007 reported very high prevalence of G10,P8[11] strains in diarrheic calves which accounted for 80 to 85% of the bovine isolates in some farms in different regions of India. Age old traditions, the extensive use of cattle waste as manure and firewood, and the close proximity of the majority of the Indian population with cattle appear to have played a facilitating role in the evolution and persistence of genotype G10,P[11] and G9,P[11] reassortant asymptomatic/symptomatic strains in newborn children in India. Strains that are reassortants between animal-human or animal-animal strains have also been reported for both humans and cattle in India. Transmission of animal rotaviruses to humans is believed to be rare and probably does not lead to clinical illness.

Key words: Rotaviral diarrhoea, Calve


14.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6155-6158 (2017)

Significance of FGF-2 during tail regeneration in lizards: A review

 YADAV, M.


Department of Zoology, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, New Delhi- 110 021.E. mail: drmeena.yadav@gmail.com

Abstract: Among reptiles, lizards have retained remarkable power of regenerating their tails as part of their adaptation. The healing of the wound is a crucial event which differentiates the regenerating and non-regenerating tissues due to presence of signaling molecules that guide the wound for the regeneration of the lost tail. This crucial event includes signals like FGFs, especially FGF-2, and Wnt proteinsVEGF, EGF etc. FGF-2 is released by nerve endings at the AEC and might be involved in dedifferentiation of cells and formation of blastema. Cross talks between FGF-2 and other signaling molecules,during initial stages of blastema formation, lead to the pathways that regenerate  the lost tail in lizards. FGF-2 is involved in reshuffling of the extracellular matrix by activating MMPs, angiogenesis, spinal cord regeneration and muscle regeneration. Inhibition of FGF-2 or its receptors before or during blastema formation hampers or stops the regeneration process.
 
Key words: Fibroblast growth factor-2, Lizard tail


15.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6159-6164 (2017)

Heat stress in crops: A review

Ramani, H R. and Mandaviab, M.K.

Main Cotton Research Station, Navsari Agriculture University, Surat 39007, Gujarat. E. mail: hrramani@nau.in

Abstract: Abiotic stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity, nutrient deficiency, ozone, heavy metals, UV-B radiation, chemical toxicity and oxidative stress are serious problems in agriculture. Abiotic stresses are the main reason for loss in crop yield and productivity. Hence they pose serious threats to the sustainability of crop yields more than any other factor in rainfed agriculture. The yield and quality of cereals and crops are severely affected by heat stress in many countries. Crops express a differential response to chronic heat as well as a heat shock. Plant growth and crop yield depend on temperature and its extremes. The optimum temperature range for C3 plants is 15-20 °C and for C4 plants, it is 25-30 °C. Temperature requirements and temperature extremes varies widely for different cultivars of the same species, and among species. High temperature adversely affects crop productivity particularly which is sensitive to stress injury. Yield reduction in under heat stress is caused by accelerated phasic development, reduction of photosynthesis, increasing in respiration and inhibition of starch accumulation. Environmental stress tolerance is intricate and involves several changes at whole plant, cellular and molecular levels. These stresses have a negative impact on photosynthetic systems in higher plants. Leaf photosynthesis is directly influenced by heat stress thereby decreasing the final biomass yield. Temperature extremes and salinity are the major stress types, which are great modulators of growth and productivity in crop plants. Most of the changes are noticeable in the cellular membranes. The metabolic changes include changes in the activities or structures of enzymes. Heat stress affects the enzymes from metabolic compartments such as mitochondria, cytoplasm or chloroplasts. Thus, high temperature is believed to produce an array of changes in plants. Main symptoms of heat stress on plants may include scorching of leaves and twigs, sunburn on branches and stems, leaf senescence and abscission. Changes imposed by high temperature may be direct on physiological processes or indirect on the developmental patterns. High temperature causes delayed germination of seeds and loss of seed vigor, reduced plant emergence and patchy crop stand. Heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones which help the plant to tolerate the extreme heat shock condition by protecting the native protein from denaturation.

Key words: Heat stress, Heat shock protein


16.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6165-6169 (2017)

 Bacteriophage and their applications: A review

 Dewangan, G., Kashyap, D.K. and  Giri, D.K.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Bilspur  495001 (C. G.). 
E. mail: govinadewangan@gmail.com

Abstract: Bacteriophages have received renewed attention as possible agent against infecting bacteria. Bacteriophages are a diverse group of viruses which are easily manipulated, and therefore have potential use in biotechnology, research and therapeutics. The application of phages range from the diagnosis of the disease, through phage typing and its prevention (phage vaccine), to treatment (phage therapy). By making a cocktail of phages, it would become easy to treat a wide variety of MDR bacterial infection that are otherwise resistant to latest generations of antibiotics.
 
Key words: Bacteriophage  (phages)


17.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6171-6177 (2017)

Hygienic monitoring in food establishment (update on technology and practices): A review

Panigrahi, S.,  Jadhav, V.,  Routray, A.  and Sahoo, S.


Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, LUVAS, Odisha, 751003. E. mail: saraswat.vet06@gmail.com

Abstract: Cleaning and sanitation are essential for the production of high quality foods or there are high chances of food borne outbreaks but there are limited researches related to food safety, hygiene. Health of food handlers and food handling practices in food establishments indicate that food-handling problems need to be addressed. Besides a good level of education and knowledge in food handling and cooking practices is essential for food safety. Food safety education should also be provided to consumers. The incidence of food borne diseases can be greatly reduced if the food handlers follow good practices and maintain a good level of personal hygiene along with development of new techniques for monitoring of hygiene.

Key words: Food safety techniques


18.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6179-6184 (2017)

Genetic engineering to establish a C4-metabolism in C3 plants for crop improvement: A review

 Kumari, R.,  Kumar, P., Sharma, V. K. and Kumar, H.


Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences and  Humanities  Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa (Samastipur) 848125 (Bihar). E- mail: rimakumari1989@gmail.com,

Abstract: As it is well established, C4 photosynthesis is the most efficient form of photosynthesis due to its greater photosynthetic conversion efficiency with the ability to concentrate CO2 around Rubisco and thus suppressing its oxygenation and photorespiration. Significant enhancement of photosynthesis in several C3 plants like rice, wheat and potato has been reported to occur due to insertion of C4 genes into C3 plants. Hence, genetic engineering to establish a C4 metabolism in C3 plants leads to increased efficiency of CO‚  assimilation, which reduces CO2 in atmosphere & increases grain yield. Converting C3 crops to C4 offers the potential to provide the possibility of improving yield significantly through improved water and nitrogen use efficiency. There are three major strategies, such as, improving Rubisco’s performance, over expression of C4 genes and delaying leaf senescence by genetic manipulation of C3 crops through introduction of C4 pathway for crop improvement. It has been observed that the introduction of maize intact pepc gene in the Indica rice enhance photosynthetic rate in high temperature conditions. Similarly,  the introduction of C4-Pdk gene of maize encoding the C4 enzyme pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK)  into rice and the expression of C4-PPDK in transgenic rice lines resulted in increased CO2 assimilation rates compared to untransformed control plants. In wheat, another important C3 crop, introduction and expression of the maize C4-spcific PEPC gene was found associated with grain yield increase up to the extent of 25-50% in transgenic plants in comparison to wild types. Therefore, based on past evidences, it may be concluded that improvement in C3 plants through introduction of C4 genes is a potential target area for efficient crop production.

Key words: C3 and C4 plants,  Crop improvement


19.   Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6185-6196 (2017)

Recent advances in transgenic crops: A review

 Prasad, B.D.,   Ranjan, T.,  Sahni, S. and Sharma, V.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur 813210  (Bihar).
 E. mail: dev.bishnu@gmail.com

Abstract: In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in the application of transgenic crop for the production and development of variety of commercially valuable biological molecules for the purpose of human and animal healthcare. Intriguingly, recent advancement made transgenic crops (as a whole and cell culture systems) as a melting pot or biological factories for the production of large-scale quantities of antibodies, antigens and/or vaccine epitopes, metabolic enzymes, hormones, neuropeptides and a variety of biologically active complexes and secondary metabolites for direct use as therapeutic agents or diagnostic tools in the medical healthcare industry. Transgenic crop researches rely on the methods of transformation either by indirect Agrobacterium mediated or direct gene transfer. The “first generation “of transgenic crops were aimed at improving traits involving single genes. Now we are on the verge of a new step in crop modification, fueled by the rate at which new genes (important for plant growth and development metabolism and stress tolerance) characterized. Reinforcement of resistance against insect-pests and pathogens attack using genetic engineering has proven to be an effective strategy to develop resistant crop plants and that could offer a remedy, allowing more precise targeting of pest and disease management. Transgenic technology has been pivotal in the full spectrum of these new developments, from gene identification to an improved understanding of their regulation, as well as genetic transformation involving more complex transfers of many genes simultaneously. As the products of genetically modified crops or transgenic crops make their way from concept to commercialization, the associated risks and acceptance by the public sector has been become a major challenge. In this paper, we revisit the recent advances made in the genetically modified crops for their improvement and protection.

Key words: Transgenic crop


20.     Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6197-6199  (2017)

Somatic cell count and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows: A mini review 

 Yogeshpriya, S., 

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamilnadu Veterinary And Animal Sciences University, Orathanadu, Thanjavur 614625. E. mail: dryogeshpriya@gmail.com 

 Abstract: Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and udder health are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. 

Key words: Somatic cell, Subclinical mastitis


21.  Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6201-6204 (2017)

 Origin of  Y chromosome: A review 

 Sood, S.  and  Sood, A.  

Neelkanth Fertility Hospital, 10 Swami Nagar, Bhuwana Udaipur 313001 (Rajasthan) India. E. mail: drsoodaashish123@yahoo.co.in   

Abstract: Hundreds of years of studying the various types of mammalian sex chromosomes, and sex determinations, it is observed, that this is complex. X and Y chromosomes of mammals have taken origin from the autosomal pair which differentiated as Y chromosome, got degraded over the years, and lost majority of its genes, except for those responsible for male specific functions. The degeneration of Y chromosome shows the crucial importance of  recombination for maintaining the fitness of vast genomes. Different mammals have originated from the same Y, which was originally  similar to X, and has lost different subset of genes over the years.  

Key words: Y chromosome


22.  Journal of  Cell and Tissue Research 17(2): 6205-6215 (2017) 

Exendin-4, nicotinamide and β-mercaptoethanol based induction differentiation of Wharton’s jelly tissue mesenchymal stem cells in to PDX-1 mediated insulin producing cells

Mahaboob, V.S. and Subrahmanyam, G. 

Head of Advanced Research Center, Department of Genetics and Stem cell Research, Narayana Medical College, Nellore 52400 (Andhrapradesh). E. mail: drmahaboobvs@gmail.com

 Abstract: Even though islet transplantation is gold standard, scarcity of donors limits the utility. Many possibilities using embryonic or adult stem cells sources have been experimentally  analysed to generate insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Recently, wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs), has sparked much interest due to it’s non-invasive availability and extensive potency among the postnatal tissues. However, differentiation induction procedure and the signal pathways in IPCs derived from WJ-MSCs remain largely unclear. The purpose of this study to investigate how various culture conditions could affect the differentiation outcome of WJ-MSCs into IPCs by focussing in their molecular mekhanism. To further elucidate the process in detail and the signaling pathways involved in this differentiation, we induced human WJ MSC differentiated into insulin secretion cells by four various protocols. Differentiated IPCs were assessed by the expression of various ß-cell-related markers and functionally by measuring glucose-stimulated insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro.The differentiation protocol-4 which contains exendin-4 significantly induced the expression levels of  ß-cell-related markers Pdx 1, Ngn 3, Isl 1, Pax 4, and Nkx 6.1. Further, in vivo application of these cells have been identified to be increased expression of ß-cell-related markers. Exendin-4 showed a synergistic effect with nicotinamide and ß-mercaptoethanol in the induction of these markers.10 nmol/L exendin-4 together with 10 mmol/L nicotinamide and 1 mmol/L ß-mercaptoethanol profoundly improves the differentiation outcome of WJ-MSCs into IPCs, possibly through the ability to induce the expression of ß-cell markers especially enhanced pdx-1 levels.  

Key words:   Exendin-4, Diabetes mellitus,  Insulin-producing cells.


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