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Pharmacology & Therapy » Past Abstracts
The electrophysiological effect of terminalia arjuna bark extract on action potential of guinea pig papillary muscle
1. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 1-3 (2008)

The electrophysiological effect of terminalia arjuna bark extract on action potential of guinea pig papillary muscle

Raghu, K.G.

Pharmacology Division, Central Drug research Institute, Chattar Manzil Palace, Post box 173, Lucknow 226001, India. E. mail:

Abstract: The bark of Terminalia arjuna has been reported to have cardiovascular effect. The present study was designed to investigate the electrophysiological effect of various concentration of bark extract of Terminalia arjuna on electrically driven cardiac action potential of papillary muscle of guinea pig. Intracellular recording of cardiac action potentials were employed in the present study. The result of the present study showed extract caused significant increase in Vmax and amplitude of action potential. This may be due to Na+ channel enhancing property of Terminalia arjuna.

Key words: Terminalia arjuna; Papillary muscle; Action potential

2. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 5-10 (2008)

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (tace): A therapy  for hepatocellular carcinoma
Patel, R.M. and Singhal, N.A.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, S. K. Patel College of Pharmaceuticl Education and Research, Ganpat University, Kherva-382711, India,  E. mail:

Abstract: Tumors, like all others cells, depend on a supply of oxygen and nutrients carried by the blood. By producing a network of blood vessels, tumours are able to receive the oxygen and nutrients necessary for their continued growth. Here we focused on transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in which chemoembolizing agent is introduced in to the artery that supply blood to the tumor. The main intention is to produce a selective ischemic and pharmacologic injury to the tumor, which relies mainly on the arterial circulation (as opposed to the rest of the liver, which is also perfused by the portal flow). TACE was introduced as a palliative treatment for patients with inoperable disease with special refrence to hepato cellular carcinoma.

Key words:Hepatocellular carcinoma, Chemoemobilization

3. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 11-13 (2008)

Antibacterial activity of Cordia dichotoma plant leaves extract with their pharmacognostical investigation

Mahour, K.,  Kumar, A.  and Vihan, V.S.

Medicine Laboratory, Animal health division, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, P.O. Farah (Mathura)  281122,  India. E. mail:

Abstract: Antibacterial activity of Cordia dichotoma plant leaves extract was studied by two different methods i.e. disc diffusion and well diffusion method against procured strain to E. coli (MTCC 2124 and 443) with their pharmacognostical investigation. Pharmacognostical investigation has been suggested physical, chemical characters and behaviour with different reagents. Chemical analysis showed positive result for protein, tannins and flavinoids. However, antibiogram study revealed antibacterial activity along with standard antibiotic drugs. Hence, it can be concluded that antibacterial activity of Cordia dichotoma plant extract is due to flavinoid active constituent.

Key words:Cordia dichotoma, E. coli, Flavinoids

4. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 15-23 (2008)

Phytomedicines for neuroprotection

Vyawahare, N.S., Ambikar, D.B., Patil, G.T., Kamble, P.N., and Chitte, N.S.

AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Kennedy Road, Pune-411001. E-mail:

Abstract: Neurodegeneration refers to situation of neuronal death occurring as result of a progressive disease process usually of long duration. Neuroprotection is a strategy to prevent cell loss in specific brain area occurring due to various reasons like stroke, injury, ischemia, hypoxia etc. The numbers of synthetic neuroprotective agents are available in clinical practice, however they are not effective in all cases, In addition neurodegeneration is multistep process involving putative mechanisms which need to be targeted accordingly. Moreover the side effects and the drug interactions are major restrictions in its clinical utility. On the other hand, phytomedicines are widely used across the globe as economical, effective and safer alternatives. The plants due to their diverse phytochemicals can act at different steps simultaneously giving more rational outcome. This manuscript reviews research advancements of some of the plants that have been used in traditional system of medicine as a neuroprotective agent.

Key words: Neurodegeneration, Neuroprotection,

5. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 25-27 (2008)

Anti-inflammatory activity of ‘Kapurkachari’

Chachad, D. and Shimpi, S.

Research laboratory, Department of Botany, K. V. Pendharkar College, Dombivli (E) 421203, India.
E. mail:

Abstract: Commercial ‘Kapurkachari’ has varied botanical source. The rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum Buch- Ham ex Smith, Kaempferia galanga Linn. and Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. are called as Kapurkachari. All the three taxa belong to the same family Scitaminae, sub-family Scitaminae. The crude drug is commonly sold for its cosmetic value. The drug also has medicinal properties; one of them is anti-inflammatory activity. Ethanolic extracts of these rhizomes were tested for verifying claim. Carrageenan induced Rat paw Oedema model was used.. The observations were statistically analyzed to confirm the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug. Hedychium spicatum showed 55.54%; Kaempferia galanga showed 50.98% and Curcuma zedoaria showed 39.78% of activity.

Key words:Kapurkachari, Anti-inflammatory activity

6. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 29-30 (2008)

Effect of plant extracts on eggs hatchability of tick Boophilus microplus

Kumar, A., Kumar, A., Vihan, V. S. and Mahour,  K.

Medicine Laboratory, Animal health division, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, P.O. Farah (Mathura)  281122,  India. E. mail:

Abstract: Effect of four plant extracts viz. Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) leaves, Sharifa (Annona squamosa) leaves, Kaner (Nerium oleander) leaves and Krshnadhatura (Datura stramonium) leaves were studied on eggs of tick (Boophilus microplus). Plants extract were prepared by soxhlet extraction, followed by concentration with rotatory evaporator under reduced pressure at optimum temperature. Engorged females of Boophilus microplus were collected from host and kept in vials covered with muslin cloth. The Eggs were collected from vials as per standard procedure. 20 eggs in each experiment were treated with four different concentrations (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/ml) of each extract for a period of 30 minutes. Treated eggs were placed in petridish, applied glycerine jelly on surface and kept in incubator at 25 °C and 85% relative humidity for a period of three weeks. Control set was maintained without extract treatment. In all four extracts, hatching were significantly reduced at all concentration. There were no hatching of eggs at 100 and 200 mg/ml concentration in all extract except 18.67±0.08 and 9.00±0.57 in Nerium oleander and Datura stramonium at 100 mg/ml concentration respectively. At lower concentration, hatching were ranging between 10 to 50% in all four extract, while it was 80% in control. Hence, present study indicated that plant extracts had the ability to checked hatching of eggs and may further change by change in concentration and time of treatment. So these plants may be used as insecticides for controlling tick population at premature stage. 

Key words:Boophilus microplus, Egg hatching, Plant extracts

7. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 31-34 (2008)

Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of Ayurvedic medicine ‘Garbhpal Ras’

Mishra, D., Sinha, M., Singh, P.N. and Vikas Kumar

Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, E-mail:,

Abstract: Garbhpal Ras is an ayurvedic herbo-mineral formulation used in pregnancy in cases of habitual abortions or miscarriages and for ensuring better nourishment to foetus. In the present study, acute and sub-chronic toxicity of Garbhpal Ras were evaluated in mice and rats respectively. Swiss albino mice and Charles Foster albino rats of either sex were distributed equally in four and three groups including control respectively. In acute toxicity study, Garbhpal Ras was administered orally in doses of 1, 2.5 and 5 gm/kg while in sub-chronic toxicity study, Garbhpal Ras was administered orally for 30 consecutive days in the doses of 12 and 40 mg/kg, 3 and 10 times higher than recommended dose respectively. Mice were observed initially for 4 hrs for behavioural changes, if any, followed by monitoring up to 72 hrs.  Body weight of rats was monitored periodically while feed and water consumption were monitored daily throughout the study. On day 31st, blood was collected by retro-orbital technique for performing haematological and biochemical tests. After collection of blood, animals were sacrificed for isolation of liver and kidney to observe histopathological changes, if any. Mice administered Garbhpal Ras did not show abnormal behaviour and no mortality was observed during 72 hrs. The levels of glucose, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total protein and albumin were not altered significantly in Garbhpal Ras treated rats compared to control rats. The level of haemoglobin and WBC count were not changed significantly. There was no sign of haemopoietic, hepatic or renal toxicity. Histopathological examination of control and experimental rats revealed the absence of any gross pathological lesion in liver and kidney. All animals were found healthy during entire study period and devoid of deleterious effect like reduction of body weight. Garbhpal Ras did not revealed any sign(s) of toxic manifestation.

Key words: Garbhpal Ras, pregnancy, acute toxicity, sub chronic toxicity.

8. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 35-38 (2008)

Antioxidant potential of Lactuca sativa extract on  male reproductive organs of aging induced mice

Rahul  B. Patil , Shreya  R. Vora and Meena M. Pillai

Department of  Zoology, Government Rajaram College, Kolhapur, 1Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004. E-mail:

Abstract: The study was undertaken to evaluate, the antioxidant potential of Lactuca sativa extract in testis and epididymis of aging induced mice. The aging was induced by injecting 5% D-galactose. The albino mice were divided into 3 groups: 1) Sham injected control, 2) Experimental group which was treated with subcutaneous injection of 5% D-galactose (0.5 ml/day) for twenty days and 3) 5% D-galactose along with ethanolic extract of Lactuca sativa  treated group (20 mg/kg body weight) for twenty days. Histological study of testis and epididymis and sperm count was carried out. Former showed disturbed epithelial lining in the testis and epididymis of galactose injected group of mice. The spermatogenic cells were also found disorganized which ultimately reduced the normal sperm count. It was decreased significantly. The results were reversed in Lactuca sativa extract received group of mice.

Key words: Lactuca sativa, Male reproductive organs, Aging induced male mice

9. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 39-43 (2008)

Bacteriocin production by free and immobilized Lactococcus lactis

Patel, D., Parekh, T.  and Rema, S.

Food Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Home Science, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120. E. mail:

Abstract: In the present study, production of bacteriocin was carried out by Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454. MRS and MRS + 0.5 % sucrose media were used for the production of bacteriocin. Encapsulation of Lactococcus lactis was also carried out by immobilization. Agar diffusion assay was done for assessing bacteriocin activity against three test organisms M. luteus, S. aureus and B. subtilis. Highest bacteriocin activity was observed in MRS + sucrose followed by MRS broth while immobilization showed lower activity. Bacteriocin activity was increased with number of culture transfers against M. luteus. Immobilized supernatant showed no activity after the 2nd transfer. The MRS + sucrose  supernatant filtrate showing highest bacteriocin activity was precipitated using solid sodium ammonium sulphate and precipitates of  60% and 80 % saturation levels were compared by agar diffusion and it revealed that 60 % saturation showed higher inhibition zones compared to 80% saturation. With respect to medical applications, antimicrobials produced by probiotic Lactic acid bacteria might play a role during in vivo interactions occurring n the human gastrointestinal tract, hence contributing to gut health.

Key words: Bacteriocin, Lactococcus lacti

10. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 45-48 (2008)

In vitro antimicrotubular activity of chalcones bearing quinoline nucleus and N-phenyl- 3-(substituted phenyl) propenamide

Patel, R.M. and Vijayan, P.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, S. K. Patel College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ganpat University, Kherva 382711. E mail:

Abstract: The spindle inhibitors are the chemotherapeutic agent targets mainly on microtubule, which segregates with kinetochore during cell division and allow the uncontrolled multiplication of cell with error. Drugs that specifically target microtubule (taxol, vinca alkaloids, chalcones) are effective anticancer drugs. Thus the microtubules represent a new molecular target in the design of anticancer drugs. This research article is focused on in vitro anti microtubular activity of synthesized compounds of quinoline nucleus and N-Phenyl-3- (substituted phenyl) propenamides namely; compound I (3-(2-Chloroquinolin-3-yl)-1-(4-hydroxy phenyl) propenone), II (3-(2-Chloro-6-methoxy quinolin-3-yl)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl), III (N-phenyl-3- (4-hydroxy phenyl) propenamide), IV (N-Phenyl-3- (3-nitro phenyl) propenamide) and V (N-Phenyl-3-(3-methoxy phenyl) propenamide on Vero cells performed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results from study revealed compound I is most potent antimicrotubule drug (15.625µg/ml).

Key words: Microtubule toxicity, Anti mitotic drugs, Microtubule dynamics

11. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 49-55 (2008)

Quality of life affecting in HIV/AIDS patients: A review

Pasupathi, P., Bakthavathsalam, G., and Ramachandran, T.

Institute of Laboratory Medicine, K. G. Hospital and Post Graduate Medical Institute, Coimbatore 641 018, India.  E-mail:

Abstract: The Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a global pandemic causing the greatest public health concern. Its etiological agent, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the commonest lethal infections worldwide. The physical and mental changes resulting from HIV infection and its treatment can affect a patient’s quality of life (QOL). Some of the most commonly reported symptoms affecting QOL in HIV-infected patients are fatigue, pain, and anxiety/depression and sleep disturbances. Fatigue often has a multifactorial etiology, including advanced HIV disease, opportunistic infections, poor nutrition, hormonal insufficiency, and anemia. Pain is one of the most overlooked factors by clinicians. Anxiety/depression and sleep disturbances are experienced by many HIV-infected individuals and are highly correlated with the perception and progression of disease. Although these common clinical symptoms impact QOL in HIV-positive patients, there are no established guidelines for treating them. As pain, anxiety/depression, and sleep disturbances can influence fatigue, as well as each other, the HIV care provider should monitor them closely because their severity reflects the clinical course of HIV as well as the overall well-being of the patient.

Key words: HIV infection, Quality of life

12. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 57-60 (2008)

Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect of Cassia fistula (linn.) leaves in streptozotocin induced  diabetic rats

Vasudevan, K., Manoharan, S.,   Panjamurthy, K., Vellaichamy, L. and Chellammal, A.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar  608 002. Tamil Nadu. E. mail:

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus, the leading endocrine disorder worldwide, is characterized by hyperglycemia due to defect in insulin secretion, insulin action and /or both. Our aim was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Cassia fistula leaves (CfELet) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in overnight fasted (12h) wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared solution of streptozotocin (50 mg kg-1 b.w) in 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Increase in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and decrease in total hemoglobin, plasma insulin and liver glycogen as well as disturbed activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes were noticed in diabetic rats as compared to control.CfELet considerably decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and enhanced the status of total hemoglobin, plasma insulin and liver glycogen as well as corrected the abnormalities in the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in diabetic rats. The present study thus demonstrated antihyperglycemic effect of Cassia fistula leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Key words: Diabetes mellitus, Cassia fistula, Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes.

13. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 61-66 (2008)

Circadian time dependent chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and ferulic acid in 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

Balakrishnan, S., Manoharan, S., Linsa Mary, A., Menon, V.P., Panjamurthy, K., Vellaichamy, L. and Vasudevan, K.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University,
Annamalainagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, E. mail:

Abstract: Our aim was to investigate the circadian time dependent chemopreventive potential of curcumin and ferulic acid in 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) -induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.  Oral squamous cell carcinoma was developed in the buccal pouches of golden Syrian hamsters at different time intervals (4.00 h, 8.00 h, 12.00 h, 16.00 h, 20.00 h and 24.00 h) by painting with DMBA three times per week for 14 weeks. The circadian time dependent tumour incidence, tumour numbers, tumour volume and burden were observed in hamsters painted with DMBA alone, DMBA + curcumin and DMBA + ferulic acid treated hamsters. Highest tumour yield at 24.00 h in hamsters painted with DMBA alone, as compared to other experimental groups, was noticed. Oral administration of curcumin and ferulic acid completely prevented oral squamous cell carcinoma formation between 8.00 h and 16.00 h in the buccal mucosa of hamsters painted with DMBA. Also, oral administration of curcumin and ferulic acid to DMBA-painted hamsters significantly inhibited the development of oral tumours in the rest of the time intervals. The present study thus demonstrated the circadian time dependent chemopreventive potential of curcumin and ferulic acid in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis.

Key words: Circadian rhythm, Curcumin, Ferulic acid, Oral carcinoma.

14. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 1: 67-73 (2008)

Hyperalgesic models to study chronic pain effectively: A review

Chopade, A.R. Naikwade, N.S. and Burade, K.B.

Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon  415404;. E. mail: 

Abstract: Chronic pain is a major clinical problem globally. Animal models provide the basic information about the mechanisms of generation and maintenance of pain, as well as help in identifying new chemical entities to treat pain, thus playing a major role in preclinical research programs. In this article we have reviewed the most popular models of chronic pain with special focus on models of hyperalgesia. In addition the general mechanisms responsible for development of hyperalgesia have been outlined.

Key words: - Chronic pain, Animal models, Hyperalgesia.,,,,,,,,,,,

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