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Pharmacology & Therapy » Past Abstracts
Prevalence of dermatophyte infection in district Rajkot

1. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 3: 1-3 (2010)

Prevalence of dermatophyte infection in  district Rajkot

Kamothi, M.N.,  Patel, B.P., Mehta, S.J., Kikani, K.M. and Pandya, J.M.

Department of Microbiology, C. U. Shah Medical College, Surendranagar 363 001.
E. mail: drmiteshkamothi@gmail.com

Abstract: Dermatophytosis is common in superficial fungal infection of keratinized tissues. Although common, the precise size of the problem defies measurement. To access the clinicoepidemiological profile of dermatophyte infection. To identify the species of fungus and to compare the clinical diagnosis by KOH smear and culture. Two hundred clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were subjected to direct smear examination and isolation. Out of 200 cases, 138 (69%) were positive for fungus in direct microscopy, while 97 (48.5%) were culture positive. Young adult in age group of 21-30 years were mainly affected. Tinea corporis (41%) was the most common clinical presentation followed by Tinea cruris (24%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most common species isolated. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical presentation and T. rubrum was the predominant fungus. Male to female ratio was 2.03:1. Majority of the patients belonged to the low-income group

Key words:  Dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum, Tinea corporis, Tinea cruris.

2. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 3: 5-7 (2010)

Anti-inflammatory effect of acetone extract of acorus calamus in albino rat

Lad, Y.H., Waghmare, K.V., Methe, K.N., Kasabe, S.V. and Kanase, A.A.

Cell Biology Section, Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 E mail: kaushiki.ketaki@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Acetone extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus stem was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using paw-edema model induced by formaldehyde injection in male albino rat. Different concentrations of acetone extract (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, and 100 %) were tested against inflammation produced by 0.25ml of 0.01% formaldehyde in male rat within 30 minutes. Dose dependent increase was observed in oedema diminishing. Application of 25 % and 50 % extracts brought the oedema to normal within 2.5 h from application while 75 % and 100 % acetone extracts suppresses the edema in 2 h. The edema was completely diminished and normal status of the paw was achieved. The results are discussed with the bio-chemical components of Pterocarpus santalinus.

Key words: Pterocarpus santalinus, Paw-edema


3. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 3: 8-12 (2010)

Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility pattern in the cases of vaginal candidiasis in Saurashtra region of Gujarat

Kikani, K. M., Joshi, P.J., Mehta, S.J., Kikani, B.A., Aring, B.J. and Kamothi, M.N.

Department of Microbiology, C. U. Shah Medical College, Surendranagar 363 001.   E Mail: kunjankikani@rediffmail.com

Abstract: Vaginal Candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginitis after anaerobic bacterial vaginosis. Out of total 1000 patients screened in this study, 304 (30.4 %) patients were found positive for Candida species which were isolated in culture. Among various groups, vaginal candidiasis was most common in pregnant women (38.9 %). Candida albicans was the most common isolate, having incidence of 66.1 %, followed by Candida glabrata (14.1 %) and Candida tropicalis (11.2 %). Anti fungal susceptibility testing for fluconazole and itraconazole were performed by recently developed NCCLS M44-A disk diffusion method.  For fluconazole, over all susceptible isolates were 91.8%, susceptible dose dependant isolates were 5.3 % and the resistance was detected in 3 % of the isolates. For itraconazole, susceptible isolates were 93.1%, susceptible dose dependant isolates were 4.91 % and the resistance was detected in 2 % of the isolates. Candida krusei demonstrated higher resistance rate of 42.9% against fluconazole and 28.6% against itraconazole.

Key words: Vaginal Candidiasis, Antifungal susceptibility testing,


4. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 3: 13-18 (2010)

Effect of Sargassum siliquastum on certain behavioural, biochemical and  haematological parameters in  wister albino rat

Sasikala, S.L., Nisha, J.C., Murali, R.V.K. , Maheaswari, S.L., Senthil Kumar, B., Shamila, S., Kishor Raj, S. and Geetha, P.

Reproductive Endocrinology Laboratory, Centre for Marine Science & Technology, Manonmaniam, Sundaranar University, Marina campus, Rajakkamangalam 629502. E. mail: cmst.drsashii@gmail.com

Abstract: The sea weed, Sargassum siliquastrum was selected for screening learning and memory, motor coordination and spontaneous motor activity in Wistar albino rat.  Enzymes and biochemical components namely serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum acid phosphate (ACP)  and serum protein of rat fed with seaweed extract were assayed.   Haematological studies were carried in reference with blood constituents such as WBC, RBC, neutrophil, esinophil, basophil, lymphocyte and monocyte.  Assessment of learning and memory by Hebb’s William maze indicated decreased memory after the treatment with Sargassum siliquastrum extracts.  The general muscle coordination of the S. siliquastrum treated animals studied by Roto rod test showed a slight decrease in muscle coordination which specify the effects of skeletal muscle relaxant property.  Effect of the algae on locomotor activity shows a marked reduction when treated with 400 mg/ kg . The results point towards the possible effect of sea weed extract on CNS with tranquillizing action. The quantitative assay of blood serum hemoglobin and other constituents are normal except for a slight increase in neutrophil and basophil indicating the possible effects on immune response.  It is clear from the above study that Sargassum siliquastrum is a central nervous system depressant which does not produce any hepatic damage or haematological alternations.

Key words: Sargassum siliquastrum, Learning and memory, Biochemical changes


5. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 3: 19-28 (2010)

Neuropharmacological screening and lack of anti-depressant activity of standardized extract of Fumaria indica: a preclinical study

Singh, G.K. and Kumar, V.

Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi  221 005. E. mail: vikas.phe@itbhu.ac.in

Abstract: The standardized 50% ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica (FI) containing 0.45% fumaric acid and 0.35% dimethyl fumarate w/w, was used in this study. Five groups of rats and mice of either sex, each group comprising of six animals, were used (i.e. control, respective standard drug, and 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg doses of FI, p.o.). Potentiation of pentobarbital induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, effect on muscle grip performance of mice, maximal electroshock seizures (MES) in rats and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in mice were used as behavioural models to evaluate general effects of the FI on central nervous system. Further, antidepressant activity of the extract was also evaluated using validated models of depression in rodents viz. behavioural despair test, learned helplessness test, tail suspension test, reserpine induced hypothermia, 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitches in mice and L-dopa induced hyperactivity and aggressive behaviour in mice. The animals treated with FI showed significant and dose dependent increase in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and marked decrease in onset of sleeping time in rats. FI and diazepam have shown significant decrease in locomotor activity. FI did not show any muscle relaxant effect in the rota-rod test in mice while diazepam has shown significant muscle relaxant effect. FI, phenobarbitone and diazepam showed significant anticonvulsant activity in MES in rats and PTZ induced convulsions in mice respectively. However, no antidepressant activity was observed with FI in any of above six validated models of depression. It may be concluded that FI has significant central nervous system depressant activity and lacking antidepressant activity in rodents.

Key words: Fumaria indica, central nervous system, antidepressant


6. Electronic Journal of Pharmacology & Therapy, 3: 29-34 (2010)

Effect of Lauha Bhasma on developing fetuses in mice

Neetu Singh, Reddy, K.R.C.  Singh, G. and Saxena, A.K.

Department of Rasa Shastra, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005.  E. mail: singhneetu17@gmail.com

Abstract: The problem of pregnancy anemia is very common in India. Out of various types of anemia iron deficiency is the most common cause. It is found that Lauha bhasma an Ayurvedic medicine is not reported to have serious untoward effects in clinical practice. The multi elemental combination of the Lauha bhasma eradicates not only iron deficiency anemia but also fulfills various elemental demands of the human system. The iron supplementation required during pregnancy can be fulfilled efficiently by Lauha bhasma until its teratogenic effect is ruled out. The study to determine the teratogenic effect of Lauha bhasma on mice fetuses was divided into three groups on the basis of dose and duration. This study establishes that administration of Lauha bhasma is safe during pregnancy as morphological and histopathological findings of pups of treated groups are not showing any untoward effects. Interestingly the statistical values regarding weight of the animals treated in the different trimesters are showing very positive metabolical changes means increase in weight.

Key words: Lauha bhasma, Teratogenicity, Pregnancy anemia


 
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